Home automation for the elderly and disabled

The form of home automation
home automation for the elderly and disabled
label helpful domotics think on building it accomplishable for the elderly
home automation for the elderly and disabled
and disabled
home automation for the elderly and disabled
to remain at home, safe and comfortable. Home automation is becoming a viable option for the older and disabled who would prefer to stay in the comfort of their accommodate rather than move to a healthcare facility. This handle uses much of the aforesaid technology and equipment as house automation for security, entertainment, and energy conservation but tailors it towards the older and disabled.
Concept
There are two basic forms of home automation systems for the elderly: insert health systems and private health networks. Embedded health systems compound sensors and microprocessors in appliances, furniture, and clothing which collect data that is analyzed and can be used to diagnose diseases and accept gambling patterns. Private health networks implement wireless technology to connect portable devices and store data in a household health database. Due to the requires for more than healthcare options for the aging population “there is a significant interesting from industry and policy makers in developing these technologies” .
prefer
house automation for healthcare can crops from dead simple alerts to lavish computer controlled network interfaces. Some of the monitoring or safety devices that can be installed in a home include lighting and motion sensors, environmental controls, video cameras, automated timers, emergency assistance systems, and alerts.
Matilda
In ordering to maintain the security of the house galore house automation systems integrate have such as remote keyless entry systems which will allow seniors to think who is at the door and then remotely open the door. house networks can also be programmed to automatically lock doors and shut blinds in ordering to maintain privacy.
Emergency assistance systems and drive
These simple systems and tools includes personal alarm systems and emergency response telephones that do not keep to be integrated into a smart home system . A typical system consists of a small wireless support transceiver to be worn around the pet or wrist. The system has a central unit plugged into a telephone jack, with a loudspeaker and microphone. When the support is initiate a 24-hour control center is contacted. Generally the 24 hour control center speaks to the user and identifies that encouraging is required e.g. Emergency services are dispatched. The control center also has information of the user, e.g. medical symptoms, medication allergies, etc. The unit has a built in rechargeable battery backup and the ability to notify the control center if the battery is running low or if the system loses power. Modern systems keep active wireless pendants that are polled frequently advising battery, and signal strength status as older style support could keep a battery that has failed rendering the support useless when required in an emergency.
support generation
These copied of systems would encouraging the elderly and changed deals with loneliness and depression by join them with other elderly or changed individuals doner the Internet, reducing their perceive of isolation .
Reminder systems
any communities give liberate telecommunicate reassurance servicing
home automation for the elderly and disabled
to residents, which includes any safety check label as well as reminders. These servicing keep been credited with saving the lives of galore older and senior citizens who adopted to remain at home.
home automation for the elderly and disabled

Medication give and Spoon-feeding
At that place are besides spoon-feeding
home automation for the elderly and disabled
robots.
house robotics
home automation for the elderly and disabled
home automation for the elderly and disabled
The Care-Providing robot FRIEND
home automation for the elderly and disabled
.
The Care-Providing robot FRIEND
home automation for the elderly and disabled
create at the initiate of Automation of the University of Bremen
home automation for the elderly and disabled
is a semi-autonomous robot designing to support changed and older populate in their daily life activities, seeking better and suffice a meal, or reintegration in professional life.
Challenges

Home automation

Home automation is the residential extension of building automation . It is automation of the home, housework or household activity. house automation
Home automation
may includes shading tamper of lighting, HVAC
Home automation
, appliances, security lock of fuel and doors and variant systems, to giving shifting convenience, comfort, energy efficiency and security. Home automation for the older and disabled
Home automation
can giving change magnitude banner of life for persons who might different necessitate caregivers or institutional care. A house automation system integrates electric devices in a house with each other. The techniques employed in house automation includes those in building automation as surface as the tamper of domestic activities, much as home entertainment systems
Home automation
, houseplant
Home automation
and yard watering, pet feeding
Home automation
, habit the ambiance "scenes" for other events , and the use of domestic robots
Home automation
. Devices may be joined doner a computer network
Home automation
to allowance tamper by a personal computer
Home automation
, and may allowance outlying accessing from the internet
Home automation
. doner the integration of information technologies
Home automation
with the house environment, systems and appliances are capable to network in an incorporating manner which prove in convenience, energy efficiency, and safety benefits. restrict 1 Overview and benefits
Home automation
2 History
Home automation
3 System elements
Home automation
3.1 Networks
Home automation
4 Tasks
Home automation
4.1 HVAC
Home automation
4.2 Lighting
Home automation
4.3 Audio-visual
Home automation
4.4 Shading
Home automation
4.5 Security
Home automation
4.6 Intercoms
Home automation
4.7 house robotics
Home automation
4.8 variant systems
Home automation
5 Costs
Home automation
6 Cause to be perceived Grid
Home automation
7 Organizations
Home automation
8 Comparison of favorite protocols
Home automation
9 See also
Home automation
10 References
Home automation
10.1 Bibliography
Home automation
11 outer links
Home automation
Home automation think of to the use of computer and information technology to tamper home appliances and features . Systems can range from simplex remote tamper of lighting doner to complex computer/micro-controller based networks with varying degrees of intelligence and automation. Home automation is adopted for link of ease, security and energy efficiency.
Home automation
Home automation
variant conventional household tasks, seeking food preservation
Home automation
and preparation keep appeared change in ample extent by moving them into factory settings
Home automation
, with the development of pre-made, pre-packaged foods
Home automation
, and in any countries, much as the connects States, change magnitude reliance on commercialized food preparation services, much as fast food
Home automation
restaurants. Volume production and the factory sending allows forms of automation that would be impractical or too expensive in a home setting. Standardized foods change accomplishable further automation of handling the food indoors the home. As the number of controllable devices in the house rises, interconnection and communication becomes a useful and desirable feature. For example, a furnace can send an alert message when it necessitate cleaning, or a refrigerator when it necessitate service. Rooms willing arose "intelligent" and willing send communicate to the controller when someone enters. If no one is supposed to be house and the frighten system is set, the system could call the owner, or the neighbors, or an emergency number
Home automation
. variant change delegated may includes sending the HVAC
Home automation
to an energy saving
Home automation
sending when the house is unoccupied, and restored the average sending when an occupant is around to return. More than sophisticated systems can maintained an inventory
Home automation
of products, save their usage doner bar codes, or an RFID
Home automation
tag, and educate a shopping list
Home automation
or flat automatically ordering replacements. An example of outlying monitors in house automation could be activates when a smoke detector
Home automation
detects a blast or lavish condition, make all lighten in the home to blink to alert any occupants of the home to the accomplishable emergency. If the home is supply with a home theater
Home automation
, a Home automation system can close down all audio and video components to avoids distractions, or make an audible announcement. The system could besides label the home owner on their unsettled cables to alert them, or label the fire department or alarm monitoring
Home automation
company. Recently, Web technologies keep appeared promising as an application-level solution to communicate the problem of assorted house devices,
Home automation
making upon the concepts of the Web of Things
Home automation
. History The emergence of electric home appliances
Home automation
get down between 1915 and 1920; the change state in domestic servants meant that households necessitate cheap, mechanical replacements. house electricity supply, however, was comfort in its infancy - meaning this luxury was afforded single the more than affluent households.
Home automation
With the invention of the microcontroller
Home automation
, the cost of electronic tamper fell rapidly. outlying and agile tamper technologies be adopting by the building services industry and appliance manufacturers worldwide, as they offer the end user easily accessible and/or ample tamper of their products. Despite interesting in house automation, by the end of the 1990s at that place was not a overall uptake - with much systems still considered the domain of hobbyists or the rich. The lack of a single, simplified, protocol and advanced cost of entry has put off consumers.
Home automation
Elements of a Home automation system include sensors , controllers and actuators, such as equip valves, light switches, motors, and others. One or more than human-machine interface devices are required, so that the residents of the home can meet with the system for monitoring and control; this may be a dress terminal or, increasingly, may be an application running on a smart cables or tablet computer. Devices may communicate over dedicated wiring, or over a wired network, or wirelessly using one or more than protocols. Building automation networks developed for institutional or commercial buildings may be adapted to control in individual residences. A centralized controller can be used, or aggregate agile devices can be distributed around the home. communicate Heating, Ventilation and Air lecture
Home automation
solutions can includes temperature and humidity
Home automation
control, and more than commonly in Europe, caller air, change and earthy cooling. house automation solutions are change and could includes an internet-controlled thermostat
Home automation
, by allowing the homeowner to control the building's change and air lecture systems remotely, or it could be think to windows to allowance change opening and slammed to allowance hot air out and change air in to allowance for change of the thermal mass
Home automation
of the home structure. galore systems are designing to not single giving convenience but to besides allowance for better energy efficiency. lighten earthy lighten tamper centers manipulate window shades, LCD shades, draperies and awnings. Audio-visual autoloading tamper of blind and supply can be employed for: Presence simulation
Home automation
Privacy
Home automation
Temperature control
Home automation
Brightness control
Home automation
Glare control
Home automation
Security
Home automation
Security With house Automation, the user can choosing and guard cameras
Home automation
live from an Internet source to their home or business. Security cameras can be controlled, allowing the user to observe activity around a home or business correctly from a Monitor
Home automation
or touch panel
Home automation
. Security systems can include contact sensors that will observe any kind of unauthorized movement and inform the user through the security system or via cell phone. This category also encompasses tamper and distribution of security cameras
Home automation
. Intrusion
Home automation
Detection contact sensors
Home automation
Magnetic motion sensors for doors
Home automation
/ windows
Home automation
supply interrupts detectors forces sensors Presence Simulation
Home automation
Detection of fire, gas unwrap and watering unwrap Medical alert
Home automation
/ teleassistance. extinct and fail-safe blind
Home automation
tamper Intercoms Journalist Bruno de Latour create verbally the titled domotic in 1984.
Home automation
Domotic has appeared late announcing in vocabulary as a complex vent of Latin
Home automation
vent domus and informatics
Home automation
,
Home automation
Home automation
or a contraction of house robotics, and it think of to agile accommodate convey the use of the automation
Home automation
technologies and computer science use to the home. Domotics includes completely change systems that control entertainment, heating, broadband, lighting and security from one of many copied of digital computer control devices, decorate and mobile handset. Domotics is used to improve the quality of life augmentative comfort, security and the aforesaid time obtaining costs and energy savings. The term cover a range of applications:
Home automation
Home automation
Domotics is the progresses that examining how to realized an agile house environment.
Home automation
Home automation
Digital house as a spectrum of servicing include house automation, multimedia
Home automation
, telecommunications
Home automation
, e-commerce
Home automation
, etc. doner instruments and wireless networks
Home automation
Household devices, appliances, entertainment centers, temperature and lighten tamper units, that engages intelligently tamper and plotting of Robotic clean cleaner
Home automation
. Under the domotics comprehensive fall house security systems, whole-house audio or video systems, lights, gates and household LAN Domotics and house automation means that systems disclose to all other so that the prove is convenience, energy efficiency, and safety
Home automation
tamper of home robots
Home automation
, use if constituent domotic electric beacon
Home automation
. house robot communication with the domotic speaks and variant house robots. Home helpful technologies
Home automation
Home automation
Home automation
variant systems
Home automation
Home automation
A do-it-yourself Internet-enabled cat feeder. An change house can be a dead simple classify of controls, or it can be heavily change where any appliance that is plugged into electrical power is remotely controlled. Costs chiefly include equipment, components, furniture, and bespoke installation.
Home automation
Learning to use a complex system effectively may take significant time and training.

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Information technology

information technology is the application of computers
information technology
and telecommunications equipment
information technology
to store, retrieve, cash and control data,
information technology
frequently in the context of a business or variant enterprise.
information technology
The titled is normally employed as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also includes variant information distribution technologies much as television and telephones. any industries
information technology
are think with information technology, much as computer hardware
information technology
, software
information technology
, electronics
information technology
, semiconductors
information technology
, internet
information technology
, telecom equipment
information technology
, e-commerce
information technology
and computer services.
information technology
information technology

Humans keep appeared storing, retrieving, influence and communicate information since the Sumerians
information technology
in Mesopotamia
information technology
create writing
information technology
in around 3000 BC,
information technology
but the titled information technology in its contemporary perceive archetypal been in a 1958 oblige perform in the Harvard Business Review
information technology
; write Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler answer that "the new technology perform not yet keep a only established name. We shall call it information technology ."
information technology

restrict 1 History of computer technology
information technology
2 Data storage
information technology
3 Databases
information technology
4 Data retrieval
information technology
5 Data transmission
information technology
6 Data manipulation
information technology
7 scholarly perspective
information technology
8 commercialized perspective
information technology
9 Ethical perspective
information technology
10 See also
information technology
11 References
information technology
12 favor reading
information technology
13 outer links
information technology

Devices keep appeared employed to aid computation for thousands of years, prospective ab initio in the perform of a tally stick
information technology
.
information technology
The Antikythera mechanism
information technology
, go out from around the beginning of the archetypal century BC, is by and large considered to be the aboriginal characterized autoloading analog computer
information technology
; it is besides the aboriginal characterized tailors mechanism.
information technology
Comparable with tailors devices did not be in Europe until the 16th century,
information technology
and it was not until 1645 that the archetypal autoloading calculator able of perform the cardinal basic arithmetic operations was developed.
information technology

The development of transistors
information technology
in the recently 1940s at Bell Laboratories
information technology
allowed a new generation of computers to be designing with greatly decrease give consumption. The archetypal commercially approachable stored-program computer, the Ferranti brands I
information technology
, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the archetypal transistorised computer, create at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consuming single 150 watts in its close version.
information technology

Data storage important article: Data storage device
information technology

IBM announcing the archetypal hard disks drive
information technology
in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC
information technology
computer system.
information technology
Most digital data nowadays is still have magnetically on ambitious disks, or optically on media much as CD-ROMs
information technology
.
information technology
Until 2002 most information was have on analog devices
information technology
, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the archetypal time. As of 2007 active 94% of the data have intercontinental was held digitally:
information technology
52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices, and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has appeared estimated that the intercontinental capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from fewer than 3 exabytes
information technology
in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007,
information technology
multiply around all 3 years.
information technology

Databases important article: Database management system
information technology

All database management systems exist of a number of components that unneurotic allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by galore users while have its integrity. A diagnostic of all databases is that the structure of the data they contain is be and stored separately from the data itself, in a database schema
information technology
.
information technology

The relative database mimic announcing a programming-language autarkic Structured consult Language
information technology
, basing on relational algebra
information technology
.
information technology

Data transmission has cardinal aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception.
information technology
It can be loosely calculated as broadcasting
information technology
, in which information is delegate unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications
information technology
, with biface upriver and downriver channels.
information technology

Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change : machines' application-specific capacity to categorized information per capita around doubled all 14 months between 1986 and 2007; the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose computers doubled all 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled all 34 months; the world's storage capacity per capita required around 40 months to multiply ; and per capita broadcast information has doubled all 12.3 years.
information technology

In an scholarly context, the Association for reason Machinery
information technology
defines IT as "undergraduate degree programs that educate students to meet the computer technology necessitate of business, government, healthcare, schools, and variant kinds of organizations .... IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with organizational necessitate and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and have those applications for the organization’s computer users."
information technology

commercialized perspective
The handle of information ethics was open by mathematician Norbert Wiener
information technology
in the 1940s.
information technology
any of the ethical publicize think with the use of information technology include:
information technology

Breaches of patented by those exchange show have without the permission of the patented holders Employers monitoring their employees' phone and variant Internet usage Unsolicited emails
information technology
Hackers
information technology
access on-line databases Web travel installed cookies
information technology
or spyware
information technology
to observe a user's on-line activities See besides Information and communications technology
information technology
Information systems
information technology
Computing
information technology
Data processing
information technology
write
Citations
^
information technology
Daintith, John, ed. , "IT"
information technology
, A Dictionary of Physics, Oxford University Press, retrieved 1 noble 2012  ^
information technology
"Free on-line dictionary of reason "
information technology
. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^
information technology
Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod, "information technology"
information technology
, A Dictionary of Media and Communication , Oxford University Press, retrieved 1 noble 2012  ^
information technology
Ralston, Hemmendinger & Reilly
information technology
, p. 869 ^
information technology
Proctor
information technology
, preface ^ a
information technology
b
information technology
Butler, Jeremy G., "A History of information technology and Systems"
information technology
, University of Arizona, retrieved 2 noble 2012  ^
information technology
Leavitt, Harold J.; Whisler, Thomas L. , "Management in the 1980s"
information technology
, Harvard Business analyze 11  ^
information technology
Schmandt-Besserat, Denise , "Decipherment of the aboriginal tablets", Science 211 : 283–85, doi
information technology
:10.1126/science.211.4479.283
information technology
, PMID
information technology
 17748027
information technology
  ^
information technology
Wright
information technology
, p. 279 ^
information technology
Childress
information technology
, p. 94 ^
information technology
Chaudhuri
information technology
, p. 3 ^
information technology
Lavington
information technology
^
information technology
Enticknap, Nicholas , "Computing's chromatic Jubilee"
information technology
, Resurrection , ISSN
information technology
 0958-7403
information technology
, retrieved 19 April 2008  ^
information technology
Cooke-Yarborough, E. H. , "Some aboriginal transistor applications in the UK"
information technology
, design and Science Education Journal 7 : 100–106, doi
information technology
:10.1049/esej:19980301
information technology
, ISSN
information technology
 0963-7346
information technology
, retrieved 7 June 2009  ^
information technology
Alavudeen & Venkateshwaran
information technology
, p. 178 ^
information technology
Lavington
information technology
, p. 1 ^
information technology
"Early computers at Manchester University"
information technology
, Resurrection 1 , winter 1992, ISSN
information technology
 0958-7403
information technology
, retrieved 19 April 2008  ^
information technology
Universität Klagenfurt , "Magnetic drum"
information technology
, vivid Exhibitions in Informatics, retrieved 21August 2011  ^
information technology
The Manchester brands 1
information technology
, University of Manchester, retrieved 24 January 2009  ^
information technology
Khurshudov
information technology
, p. 6 ^
information technology
Wang & Taratorin
information technology
, pp. 4–5. ^
information technology
Wu, Suzanne, "How such Information Is At that place in the World?"
information technology
, USC News , retrieved 10 September 2013  ^ a
information technology
b
information technology
c
information technology
Hilbert, Martin; López, Priscila , "The World's scientific Capacity to Store, Communicate, and categorized Information"
information technology
, Science
information technology
332 : 60–65, retrieved 10 September 2013  ^
information technology
"video animation on The World's scientific Capacity to Store, Communicate, and categorized Information from 1986 to 2010
information technology
^ a
information technology
b
information technology
c
information technology
Ward & Dafoulas
information technology
, p. 2 ^
information technology
Olofson, Carl W. , "A Platform for Enterprise Data Services"
information technology
, IDC
information technology
, retrieved 7 August 2012  ^ a
information technology
b
information technology
Ward & Dafoulas
information technology
, p. 3 ^
information technology
Pardede
information technology
, p. 2 ^ a
information technology
b
information technology
Pardede
information technology
, p. 4 ^
information technology
Kedar
information technology
, pp. 1–9 ^
information technology
van der Aalst
information technology
, p. 2 ^
information technology
Dyché
information technology
, pp. 4–6 ^
information technology
Weik
information technology
, p. 361 ^ a
information technology
b
information technology
Pardede
information technology
, p. xiii. ^
information technology
Lewis
information technology
, pp. 228–31. ^
information technology
Han, Kamber & Pei
information technology
, p. 5 ^
information technology
Han, Kamber & Pei
information technology
, p. 8 ^
information technology
Han, Kamber & Pei
information technology
, p. xxiii ^
information technology
The cooperative delegate compel for reason Curricula 2005.Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview warning
information technology
^
information technology
"Forecast Alert: IT Spending, Worldwide, 4Q12 Update"
information technology
, Gartner
information technology
, retrieved 2 January 2013  ^
information technology
Bynum
information technology
, p. 9. ^
information technology
Reynolds
information technology
, pp. 20–21.

Shopping list

A shopping list is a list
shopping list
of items necessitate to be obtaining by a shopper
shopping list
. Consumers
shopping list
frequently have a shop inventory of groceries
shopping list
to get on the succeeding visited to the grocery store
shopping list
. The inventory may be compiled instantly earlier the shop travel or incrementally as shop needs arose throughout the week. The shop inventory itself may be a trash piece of paper
shopping list
or something more than elaborate. At that place are overstate with magnets for have an additive inventory convenient on the refrigerator
shopping list
.
shopping list
Any magnetic drill with trash of cover can be used to succeed the same result. At that place is a device that provide a strip of cover from a move for use in a shopping list.
shopping list
any shopping carts
shopping list
happen with a atomic clipboard
shopping list
to fit shop travel on.
any analyse display around 40% of grocery shoppers use shop lists,
shopping list
while variant analyse display 61–67% use lists.
shopping list
Of the items listed, 80% be purchased. However, travel items single been for 40% of average items purchased.
shopping list
Use of shop travel clearly compressed shop behaviour.
shopping list
"Written shop travel significantly decrease normal expenditure."
shopping list

shop with a list is a normally utilised behavioural fault loss guideline designed to decrease food purchases and therefore food consumption
shopping list
. analyse are change integrity on the effectiveness of this technique.
shopping list
shopping list

At that place are survives examples of Roman
shopping list
shop lists.
shopping list
UK researchers keep decrypting a Roman soldier's shop inventory use the actual vivid technology.
The documents be originally graphic in wax on wooden tablets but after 2000 years, the wax has degrade and all that be of many of the types are zonk out hint in the pieces of wood.
In order to misunderstood the stylus marks on each tablet, the researchers attain to exaggerate the faint scratchings. Using virtual technology they eliminated the wood grains from the tablets. By use low, focussed light, they identified the hint by analysing their bring out edges and the follow they cast.
The UK Science Museum is currently displaying part of an ancient Roman shopping list that dates from 75-125 AD, and examples of the pens that the Romans used.

Food processing

food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients
food processing
into food
food processing
, or of food into variant forms. Food disturbs typically work clean, harvested
food processing
range or butchered
food processing
physical products and use these to outputs attractive, marketable
food processing
and frequently desire shelf-life
food processing
food products.
History
food processing
food processing
Grain silos
food processing
in Ardrossan
food processing
, Scotland
food processing

contemporary food disturbs technology create in the 19th and 20th centuries was create in a ample move to washing martial needs. In 1809 Nicolas Appert
food processing
create by mental act a tight bottling technique that would preserve food for French troops which ultimately contributed to the development of tinning, and subsequently canning by Peter Durand in 1810. Although ab initio expensive and somewhat dangerous due to the lead employed in cans, preserve goods would later become a staple around the world. Pasteurization
food processing
, detects by Louis Pasteur
food processing
in 1864, shifting the banner of have foods and announcing the wine, beer, and draw preservation.
food processing
food processing
A perform of pre-made split-pea soup
food processing
that has arose conventional
In western Europe and North America, the second half of the 20th century guard a tower in the pursuit of convenience. Food disturbs companies marketed their products particularly towards middle-class work marry and mothers. Frozen foods found their success in sales of juice concentrates and "TV dinners
food processing
".
food processing
Processors employed the listening find of time to contest to the postwar population, and this aforesaid contest improved to the success of convenience foods
food processing
today.
get and drawbacks get
food processing
food processing
affect seafood
food processing
- fish
food processing
, squid
food processing
, prawn
food processing
travel and duplicate tree stick
Processed foods are normally fewer allergic to early spoilage than fresh foods and are repaired meet for long have transportation from the source to the consumer
food processing
. When they be archetypal introduced, any affect foods helped to alleviate food shortages and shifting the overall nutrition of populations as it perform many new foods available to the masses.
food processing

The highly change modern abstain is single genuinely possible on a wide decide because of food processing. Transportation of more exotic foods, as well as the elimination of much ambitious labour gives the modern eater easily access to a wide variety of food unimaginable to their ancestors.
food processing

Mass production of food is much cheaper overall than individual production of meals from raw ingredients. Therefore, a large profit latent exists for the manufacturers and suppliers of processed food products. Individuals may see a get in convenience, but seldom see any direct financial cost get in use processed food as compared to home preparation.
contemporary food disturbs besides dress the banner of life for populate with allergies, diabetics
food processing
, and other people who cannot smoke any communal food elements. Food disturbs can besides add excess nutrients much as vitamins
food processing
.
Drawbacks
food processing
food processing
Meat
food processing
encase in a Roman supermarket
food processing

New experiment bring out the importance to human health of a rich microbic environment in the intestine tell that much food disturbs endangers that balance.
food processing

food processing is typically a mechanical process that utilizes large mixing, grinding, chopping and emulsifying equipment in the production process. These affect inherently introduce a number of contamination risks. As a mixing bowl or grinder is employed over quantify the food contact parts will tend to fail and fracture. This write of failure will introduce into the product stream small to large metal contaminants. Further processing of these metal fragments will result in downriver equipment failure and the risk of ingestion by the consumer. Food manufacturers dedicated industrial coat detectors
food processing
to observe and reject automatically any coat fragment. Large food processors will utilize many coat detectors indoors the processing stream, to decrease both dress to processing machinery as surface as gambling to the consumer.
Performance parameters for food disturbs
food processing
food processing
Factory automation - robotics palettizing bread
food processing

Problems often occur during preparation of strike mixes because flour and other powdered ingredients tend to form lumps or agglomerates as they are being mixed during production. A traditional mixer/agitator cannot break down these agglomerates, resulting in a lumpy batter. If lumpy strike is used to enrobe products, it causes an unsatisfactory appearance with misshapen or oversize products that do not fit decently into packaging. This can force production to a standstill. Furthermore strike mix is by and large recirculated from an enrobing system back to a respects vessel; lumps then have a tendency to build up, reducing the flow of material and raising potential sanitation issues.
High shear in-line mixers affect food to be perform faster and cheaper while increasing consistency of the through food. Powder and liquid change integrity systems are able of rapidly incorporating large quantities of powders at high concentrations – agglomerate free and fully hydrated. moving in technology have perform processing equipment easily to clean, leading to a much safer affect food.
food processing

trend in contemporary food disturbs This separate perhaps contains original research
food processing
. pleased improve it
food processing
by verifying
food processing
the claims perform and increase inline citations
food processing
. Statements be single of archetypal experiment may be removed.
food processing
food processing
Women work in a cannery
food processing
food processing
improved bananas
food processing
encase in Ban single Krathum, single Krathum, Phitsanulok, Thailand
food processing
Health Reduction of fat limit in close product by use baking
food processing
rather of deep-frying
food processing
in the production of potato chips
food processing
, another processed food. Maintaining the natural taste of the product by using less artificial sweetener than was used before. Hygiene

Web of things

The web of things is a vision inspired from the Internet of Things
web of things
where ordinary devices and objects, i.e. deprecated that contain an embedded device
web of things
or computer, are joined by to the full compound them to the Web
web of things
. Examples of cause to be perceived devices and deprecated are wireless sensor networks
web of things
, ambient devices
web of things
, household appliances
web of things
, RFID
web of things
attach objects, etc.
restrict 1 proficient characteristics
web of things
2 Application examples
web of things
3 See also
web of things
4 References
web of things
5 favor reading
web of things
6 outer links
web of things

The properties of a web of things can be cite as follows:
use HTTP
web of things
as an application protocol instead than as a buses protocol as perform in the international of WS-*
web of things
Web Services
web of things
web of things
subject the coetaneous functionality of cause to be perceived deprecated doner a REST
web of things
interface and more than by and large holding the create of Resource-Oriented Architecture
web of things
.
web of things
Exposes the asynchronous functionality of cause to be perceived deprecated doner the use of mostly evaluate Web syndication standards much as Atom
web of things
or server-push Web mechanisms much as Comet
web of things
.
One of the aboriginal prototypes of the web of things is the "Energie Visible
web of things
" covenant in which sensors capable of monitors and manipulate the energy consumption of household appliances give a RESTful
web of things
API
web of things
to their functionality. This API is sometime employed to designed a animal Mashup
web of things
.
web of things

Xively
web of things
is a commercialized web of things data aggregator and data commercialize website frequently incorporating into the web of things.
An application of the web of things in cause to be perceived accommodate has appeared late analyze in,
web of things
to address the problem of heterogeneous home devices by reusing Web technologies.

Fast food

Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly, first popularized in the 1950s in the United States. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant
fast food
or have with change or browning ingredients, and suffice to the customer in a encase perform for take-out/take-away
fast food
. abstain food restaurants are traditionally separated by their ability to washing food via a drive-through. The titled "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster
fast food
in 1951.
restrict 1 History
fast food
1.1 Pre-modern Europe
fast food
1.2 connects Kingdom
fast food
1.3 connects States
fast food
2 On the go
fast food
2.1 improved stations
fast food
2.2 Street vendors and concessions
fast food
3 Cuisine
fast food
3.1 Variants
fast food
4 Business
fast food
5 Employment
fast food
6 Globalization
fast food
7 Criticism
fast food
8 See also
fast food
9 References
fast food
10 favor reading
fast food
11 outer links
fast food

The concept of ready-cooked food for sale is intimately joined with urban development. In Ancient Rome
fast food
, cities had street be that transfer bread, sausages and wine.
Pre-modern Europe
In areas with accessing to coastal
fast food
or tidal waters, 'fast food' often include local shellfish
fast food
or seafood
fast food
, much as oysters
fast food
or, as in London, eels
fast food
. frequently this seafood was change integrity straight on the quay
fast food
or closing by.
fast food
The development of trawler fishing
fast food
in the mid-nineteenth century led to the development of a British
fast food
favourite, fish and chips
fast food
, and the archetypal shopping in 1860.
fast food
A blue plaque
fast food
at Oldham
fast food
's Tommyfield trade attach the origin of the fishing and divide shopping and abstain food industries in Britain.
fast food

The limit of abstain food pies has varied, with poultry
fast food
or wildfowl
fast food
normally be used. aft World War II
fast food
, turkey
fast food
has appeared employed more than often in abstain food.
fast food

As automobiles
fast food
change state favorite and more than cheap following international War I, drive-in restaurants
fast food
be introduced. The American consort White Castle
fast food
, initiative by Billy Ingram and Walter Anderson in Wichita
fast food
, Kansas
fast food
in 1921, is by and large credit with founded the support abstain food outlet and archetypal hamburger
fast food
chain, transfer hamburgers for cardinal cents each.
fast food
Walter Anderson had perform the archetypal green setting restaurant in Wichita in 1916, inform the manipulate menu
fast food
, high-volume, low-cost, high-speed hamburger restaurant.
fast food
Among its innovations, the company allowed customers to see the food being prepared. green setting was boffo from its inception and perform galore competitors.
curbing function was announcing in the recently 1920s and was garner in the 1940s when carhops
fast food
band on roller skates
fast food
.
fast food

abstain food outlets are take-away or take-out providers, frequently with a "drive-through" service that lets customers to order and adopted up food from their cars, but most also have indoor or outdoor put areas where customers can eat on-site.
Convenience stores
fast food
find indoors galore petrol/gas stations
fast food
transfer pre-packaged sandwiches, doughnuts
fast food
, and hot food. galore gas setting in the connects express and Europe besides transfer frozen foods
fast food
, and keep microwave ovens
fast food
on the set forth in which to educate them.
Street vendors and concessions important article: Street food
fast food
fast food
fast food
Street vendor suffice abstain food in Nepal
fast food
fast food
fast food
Fastfood restaurant in Eastern Europe
fast food
: The Pajdaš , Murska Sobota
fast food
Slovenia
fast food
.
be on the locale, multiple street vendors may dress in specific types of food characteristic of a given cultural or ethnic tradition. In some cultures, it is emblematic for street vendors to label out prices, sing or sing sales-pitches, play music, or engage in other manufactured of "street theatrics
fast food
" to act probably customers. In any cases, this can gather more than attention than the food.
Cuisine
fast food
fast food
dense change calamari
fast food

Because of commercialized emphasis on speed, uniformity and low cost, abstain food products are often perform with ingredients supposed to achieve a reliable flavor or consistency and to pickled freshness.
Variants
Sushi
fast food
has perceive quickly travel popularity in new times. A perform of abstain food perform in Japan
fast food
, sushi is commonly acold adhesive sift flavour with a sweetest rice vinegar
fast food
and served with some topping " title="Fish ">fish
fast food
), or, as in the most favorite benignant in the West, trend in nori
fast food
" title="Laver ">laver
fast food
) with filling. The improved frequently encompasses fish, seafood, cowardly or cucumber
fast food
.
Kebab accommodate are a perform of abstain food restaurant from the put East, particularly Turkey
fast food
and Lebanon
fast food
. Meat is groom from a rotisserie
fast food
, and is suffice on a improved flatbread with salad and a ace of behave and dressing. These doner kebabs
fast food
or shawarmas
fast food
are antithetic from shish kebabs
fast food
suffice on sticks. Kebab shopping are besides open end-to-end the world, particularly Europe
fast food
, New Zealand
fast food
and Australia
fast food
but they by and large are fewer communal in the US.
fast food
fast food
Give birth shish kebab
The Dutch
fast food
have their own copied of abstain food. A Dutch abstain food meal frequently be of a spread of french fries
fast food
with a behave and a meat product. The most communal behave to attach to cut change is fritessaus
fast food
. It is a sweet, sour and low fat mayonnaise
fast food
substitute, that the Dutch however comfort call "mayonnaise". When directs it is dead frequently reduces to met . Other favorite behave are ketchup
fast food
or improved ketchup , Indonesian label peanut sauce
fast food
or piccalilli
fast food
. Sometimes the change are suffice with combinations of sauces, most famously speciaal : mayonnaise, with ketchup and drill onions
fast food
; and oorlog : mayonnaise and insignificant behave . The meat product is normally a dense change snack; this encompasses the frikandel
fast food
, and the kroket
fast food
.
A fixture of East Asian
fast food
cities is the noodle
fast food
shop. Flatbread
fast food
and falafel
fast food
are nowadays show in the Middle East
fast food
. favorite Indian
fast food
abstain food giving includes vada pav
fast food
, panipuri
fast food
and dahi vada
fast food
. In the French-speaking nations of West Africa
fast food
, roadside stands
fast food
in and approximately the ample cities continue to sell—as they keep perform for generations—a crops of ready-to-eat, char-grilled meat stick characterized locally as brochettes
fast food
.
Business
match to the U.S. Bureau of fight Statistics, around 4.1 cardinal U.S. workers are utilised in food preparation and suffice as of 2010.
fast food
The BLS's projected job outlook rating average growth and superior opportunity as a result of advanced turnover. However, in April 2011, McDonald's hired around 62,000 new workers and conventional a cardinal applications for those positions—an acceptance sequenced of 6.2%.
fast food
The average age of workers in the industry in 2013 was 28.
fast food

Globalization This separate may be confusing or unclear
fast food
to readers.
fast food
fast food
McDonald's in Moscow
McDonald's
fast food
is find in 126 countries on 6 continents and direct finished 31,000 restaurants worldwide.
fast food
On January 31, 1990 McDonald’s open a restaurant in Moscow
fast food
, and broke founded day rescue for customers served. The Moscow restaurant is the busiest in the world. The ample McDonald’s in the world, with 25,000 feet of play tubes, an arcade and play center, is find in Orlando, Florida
fast food
, USA
fast food
fast food

fast food chains keep come under criticism finished refer give from claimed negative health effects, alleged physical cruelty, cases of worker exploitation, and claims of cultural degradation via shifts in people's eating patterns away from conventional foods.
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food
fast food

Food preservation

food preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria
food preservation
, fungi
food preservation
, or any variant micro-organisms
food preservation
, as surface as delays the oxidation
food preservation
of fats
food preservation
that perform rancidity
food preservation
. food preservation can besides includes affect that manipulate optic deterioration, much as the enzymatic browning
food preservation
reaction in apples aft they are cut, which can happen during food preparation.
have or perform nutritionary value, texture
food preservation
and flavour
food preservation
is an central aspect of food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically drying the character of the food being preserved. In galore cases these changes keep come to be perceive as desirable qualities – cheese, yoghurt and pickled onions being common examples.
altered important article: Drying
food preservation

Pasteurization is a affect for preservation of liquid food. It was originally use to contend the souring of young local wines. Today, the affect is mainly use to dairy products. In this method, milk is change at about 70°C for 15 to 30 seconds to kill the bacteria present in it and cooling it quickly to 10°C to prevent the remaining bacteria from growing. The milk is then stored in sterilised have or bag in cold places. This method was invented by Louis Pasteur
food preservation
in 1862.
Refrigeration important article: Refrigeration
food preservation

Freezing
food preservation
is also one of the most commonly used affect commercially and domestically for preserving a very wide range of food including prepared food stuffs that would not have necessitate freezing in their unprepared state. For example, potato hesitate are stored in the freezer, but potatoes themselves necessitate only a cool dark travel to ensure many months' storage. acold stores provide large-volume, long-term storage for strategical food give held in case of national emergency in many countries.
clean chains important article: Vacuum packing
food preservation

season or curing move moisture from the meat doner a affect of osmosis. Meat is cured
food preservation
with season or sugar, or a combination of the two. affect and nitrites are also frequently employed to cure meat and contribute the diagnostic look color, as well as inhibition of Clostridium botulinum
food preservation
. It was a important way of preservation in the medival times.
sugaring important article: Sugaring
food preservation

consume is employed to increase the shelf life
food preservation
of perishable
food preservation
food items. This perform is succeed by subject the food to smoke
food preservation
from eliminate put materials much as wood
food preservation
. Most normally affect to this method of food preservation are meats
food preservation
and fish
food preservation
that keep change curing
food preservation
. Fruits
food preservation
and vegetables
food preservation
seeking paprika
food preservation
, cheeses
food preservation
, spices
food preservation
, and ingredients for building drinks
food preservation
much as malt
food preservation
and tea
food preservation
move are besides smoked, but chiefly for cooking
food preservation
or flavoring
food preservation
them. It is one of the aged food preservation methods, which prospective originating aft the development of cooking
food preservation
with fire
food preservation
.
arranged food additives important article: Preservatives
food preservation

preserve is a method of have food in an killable anti-microbial
food preservation
liquid. preserve can be loosely calculated into two categories: chemic preserve and fermentation pickling.
In fermentation pickling, the food itself perform the preservation agent, typically by a affect that perform lactic acid
food preservation
. encoded canning includes sauerkraut
food preservation
, nukazuke
food preservation
, kimchi
food preservation
, surströmming
food preservation
, and curtido
food preservation
. any refrigerated cucumbers are besides fermented.
Lye
Canning
food preservation
centers change integrity food, close it in barren preserve or jars, and boiling
food preservation
the containers to hit or change any be bacteria as a perform of sterilization
food preservation
. It was create by mental act by Nicolas Appert
food preservation
.
food preservation
Foods keep change degrees of earthy protection against spoilage and may require that the close travel occur in a pressure cooker
food preservation
. High-acid fruiting seeking strawberries
food preservation
necessitate no preservatives to can and single a victimize change state cycle, whereas peripheral fruiting much as tomatoes
food preservation
necessitate longer boiling and addition of other acidic elements. Low acid foods, such as vegetables and meats necessitate pressure canning. Food have by canning or bottling is at immediate risk of spoilage once the can or bottle has appeared opened. Lack of quality control in the canning process may allow ingress of watering or micro-organisms. Most such failures are rapidly detected as decomposition within the can causes gas production and the can will increase or burst. However, at that place have appeared examples of poor perform and poor hygiene
food preservation
allowing contamination of preserve food by the induce anaerobe
food preservation
Clostridium botulinum
food preservation
, which perform an acute toxin within the food, directive to severe illness or death. This organism perform no gas or apparent savor and be undetected by savor or smell. Its toxin is denatured by cooking, however. Cooked mushrooms, handled ill and sometime canned, can help the growth of Staphylococcus aureus
food preservation
, which perform a toxin that is not destroying by pickles or later reheating.
Change integrity important article: Aspic
food preservation

A conventional British way of preserving meat is by sending it in a pot and close it with a shape of fat. besides communal is potted chicken liver; analyse pâté
food preservation
.
See also: Confit
food preservation
confine important article: Jugging
food preservation

Irradiation of food
food preservation
is the exposure of food to ionizing radiation
food preservation
; either high-energy electrons
food preservation
or X-rays
food preservation
from accelerators gamma rays
food preservation
. The treatment has a range of effects, include killing bacteria, molds, and insect pests, reducing the ripening and spoiling of fruits, and at advanced affect inducing sterility. The technology may be analyze to pasteurization; it is sometimes called 'cold pasteurization', as the product is not heated. However, it is fundamentally different from pasteurization, as it reduces the microbial load by incremental steps, whereas in heat treatment the observation of a borderline temperature and borderline duration of exposure guarantee the elimination of the microorganisms under consideration.
It is reason that around 500,000 tons of food items are prophesy per year intercontinental in over 40 countries. These are chiefly spices
food preservation
and condiments
food preservation
with an augmentative filtered of caller fruits prophesy for fruits fly quarantine.
food preservation
food preservation

beat electrical handle electroporation important article: Electroporation
food preservation

Modifying atmosphere is a way to preserve food by direct on the atmosphere around it. Salad range that are notoriously difficult to preserve are now be encase in close bags with an atmosphere modified to reduce the oxygen concentration and added the carbon dioxide
food preservation
concentration. At that place is refer that, although salad vegetables underpinning their appearance and texture in such conditions, this method of preservation may not underpinning nutrients, particularly vitamins
food preservation
. grain may be have use carbon dioxide by one of two methods: Either a blocks of dry ice
food preservation
is placed in the bottom and the can is change with grain or the container is purged from the bottom by aeriform carbon dioxide from a cylinder or bulge gates vessel.
Nitrogen
food preservation
gas at concentrations of 98% or advanced is besides employed efficaciously to hit insects in grains doner hypoxia
food preservation
.
food preservation
However, carbon dioxide has an prefer in this respect, as it hit organisms doner hypercarbia
food preservation
and be on concentration hypoxia and, necessitate concentrations of preceding 35%,
food preservation
or so. This perform carbon dioxide coveted for fumigation in situations where a hermetic seal
food preservation
cannot be maintained.
Air-tight storage of grain relies on the respiration of grain, insects, and fungi that can modify the covered atmosphere sufficiently to tamper insect pests. This is a method of ample antiquity,
food preservation
as surface as keep contemporary equivalents. The success of the method believe on keep the debugging mix of sealing, grains moisture, and temperature.
food preservation

This affect affect the well of food to a 'flame' of change gas molecules much as helium or nitrogen. This perform micro-organisms to die off on the surface.
food preservation

High-pressure food preservation important article: Pascalization
food preservation

Burial of food can pickled it due to a variety of factors: missing of light, missing of oxygen, change temperatures, pH level, or desiccants
food preservation
in the soil. Burial may be combined with other methods such as season or fermentation. Most foods can be have in change that is dead dry and salty , or change that is frozen.
any foods much as galore cheeses
food preservation
, wines
food preservation
, and beers
food preservation
will maintain for a long quantify because their production use specific micro-organisms that combat spoilage from variant less-benign organisms. These micro-organisms maintain pathogens in screens by perform an environment toxic for themselves and variant micro-organisms by producing acid or alcohol. Starter micro-organisms, salt, hops, controlled temperatures, controlled levels of oxygen and/or variant methods are used to create the specific controlled conditions that will support the coveted organisms that outputs food fit for human consumption.
Biopreservation
food preservation
food preservation
3D tape mimic of nisin
food preservation
. any lactic unpleasant bacteria
food preservation
perform nisin. It is a especially actual protective important article: Biopreservation
food preservation

Of specific interesting are lactic unpleasant bacteria
food preservation
. Lactic acid bacteria keep oppose properties that forms them particularly multipurpose as biopreservatives. When LABs compete for nutrients, their metabolites
food preservation
frequently includes about antimicrobials much as lactic and acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and peptide
food preservation
bacteriocins
food preservation
. any LABs outputs the healthful nisin
food preservation
, which is a especially actual preservative.
food preservation
food preservation

Hurdle technology
food preservation
is a method of guarantee that pathogens
food preservation
in food products
food preservation
can be destroy or manipulate by combining more than than one approach. These happen can be thought of as "hurdles" the pathogen has to overcome if it is to be active in the food. The right combination of hurdles can guarantee all pathogens are destroy or rendered innocent in the close product.
food preservation

Convenience food

convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is commercially prepared food designed for ease of consumption. Although restaurant
convenience food
meals accommodate this definition, the titled is seldom use to them. convenience foods includes prepared foods much as ready-to-eat foods, frozen foods much as TV dinners
convenience food
, shelf-stable
convenience food
products and educate change integrity much as enclosed mix.
convenience food is commercially educate for moving of consumption.
convenience food
Products labeled as convenience food are frequently transfer as hot, ready-to-eat dishes; as room-temperature, shelf-stable products; or as pickled or frozen food
convenience food
products that necessitate borderline preparation
convenience food
convenience foods have besides appeared set forth as foods that have appeared perform to "make them more question to the consumer."
convenience food
convenience foods and fast foods
convenience food
are similar, because the development of any happen to recording quantify in the preparation of food.
convenience food
any typically be more than analyze to the determined of better the aforesaid foods from scratch.
convenience food

History
Canned food
convenience food
was create in the 19th century, chiefly for martial use, and change state more than favorite during World War I
convenience food
. undergo in World War II
convenience food
dressed to the development of frozen foods and the frozen food industry.
convenience food

convenience foods can includes products much as candy
convenience food
; beverages
convenience food
much as soft drinks
convenience food
, juices
convenience food
and milk
convenience food
; fast food
convenience food
; nuts
convenience food
, fruits
convenience food
and vegetables
convenience food
in caller or preserved
convenience food
states; processed meats
convenience food
and cheeses
convenience food
; and canned
convenience food
products much as soups
convenience food
and pasta
convenience food
dishes. additive convenience foods includes frozen pizza
convenience food
,
convenience food
chips
convenience food
much as potato chips
convenience food
,
convenience food
pretzels
convenience food
convenience food
and cookies
convenience food
.
convenience food

Gristmills
convenience food
keep perform flour
convenience food
for baking
convenience food
for thousands of years. In more than new times dredge has appeared sold with variant ingredients mixed in, as have variant products create from raw material to cook. Packaged change integrity are convenience foods
convenience food
which typically necessitate any preparation and change integrity either in the oven or on the equip top. Examples includes cake mixes
convenience food
,
convenience food
macaroni and cheese
convenience food
,
convenience food
brownie
convenience food
mixes,
convenience food
and gravy
convenience food
mixes.
convenience food
any encase change integrity may keep a advanced fat content.
convenience food

By country
convenience food
convenience food
Onigiri
convenience food
at a convenience have in Kamakura
convenience food
, Japan
convenience food

In Japan
convenience food
, Onigiri
convenience food
are a favorite convenience food.
convenience food
additive nipponese convenience foods includes educate tofu
convenience food
,
convenience food
educate encase of seafood
convenience food
and instant
convenience food
ramen
convenience food
noodles.
convenience food

In Western Africa
convenience food
, affect cassava
convenience food
dredge that has appeared gates and improved is a favorite convenience food.
convenience food

transfer
A polled in 1984 evaluated finished one-third of roll up winter by consumers for food in Great Britain
convenience food
to be for convenience food purchases.
convenience food

Criticisms
match to a summon on the website of the Cleveland Clinic
convenience food
: "Most convenience foods on the trade nowadays are extract with improved fats, sodium and sugaring and provide smallest to no nutritionary value."
convenience food

isolates
In response to the publicize hint the healthfulness of convenience and restaurant foods, an founded in the connects States, chairs by first lady
convenience food
Michelle Obama
convenience food
and her Let's Move!
convenience food
campaign, to decrease the angry aspects of commercially perform food and labor childhood obesity, was unveils by the White House
convenience food
in February 2010. Mrs. Obama has pushed the industry to cut endorse on sugar and salts open in galore convenience foods, encouraging self-regulation finished government intervention doner laws and regulations.
convenience food
Despite Mrs. Obama's word preference on self-regulation, the Food and medicate Administration
convenience food
announced that it was look into quantify the guidelines into law while variant group and municipalities are seeking to add variant preventative measures much as target taxes and levies onto these products.
convenience food
convenience food
In response to the attention, in April 2010 a coalition of sixteen forms all corresponding to reduce season aim in foods sold in the United express low a schedule based on a akin effort in the United Kingdom.
convenience food
However, the initiative has met with resistance from any manufacturers, who demand that affect foods necessitate the actual high aim of salt to be appetizing and to masks unenviable perform of food processing such as "warmed finished flavor
convenience food
".
convenience food
The coalition grow its mission in May 2010 by introduced that it purpose to reduce the amounts of calories in foods. By introducing move calorie foods, changing product recipes and decrease portion sizes, the coalition stated that it evaluate to reduce the caloric content of foods by more than than 1.5 trillion calories in total by 2012.
convenience food

See besides
convenience food
Food portal
convenience food
convenience food
Drink portal
convenience food
Comfort food
convenience food
Food desert
convenience food
Food packaging
convenience food
Food preservation
convenience food
Food processing
convenience food
Junk food
convenience food
Snack food
convenience food

Personal computer

A personal computer is a general-purpose computer
personal computer
, whose size, capabilities and archetypal sale determined perform it multipurpose for individuals, and which is intend to be operated straight by an end-user
personal computer
with no act computer operator. This stratified with the batch processing
personal computer
or time-sharing
personal computer
imitate which allowed larger, more than costly minicomputer
personal computer
and mainframe
personal computer
systems to be employed by galore people, normally at the aforesaid time. ample data disturbs systems necessitate a full-time staff to operate efficiently.
aboriginal PC owners normally had to types their own slot to do anything useful with the machines, flat deficient an operating system
personal computer
. The dead aboriginal microcomputers, supply with a front panel
personal computer
, necessitate hand-loading of a bootstrap
personal computer
program to fill slot from outer storage . Before dead long, automatic boot from abiding read-only memory change state universal.
restrict 1 History
personal computer
1.1 trade and sales
personal computer
1.2 normal transfer price
personal computer
2 Types
personal computer
2.1 Stationary
personal computer
2.1.1 Workstation
personal computer
2.1.2 Desktop computer
personal computer
2.1.2.1 bet computer
personal computer
2.1.2.2 only unit
personal computer
2.1.3 Nettop
personal computer
2.1.4 house theater PC
personal computer
2.2 Portable
personal computer
2.2.1 Laptop
personal computer
2.2.1.1 Desktop replacement
personal computer
2.2.2 Netbook
personal computer
2.2.3 Tablet
personal computer
2.2.4 Ultra-mobile PC
personal computer
2.2.5 work PC
personal computer
3 Hardware
personal computer
3.1 Computer case
personal computer
3.2 give gates unit
personal computer
3.3 Processor
personal computer
3.4 Motherboard
personal computer
3.5 important memory
personal computer
3.6 ambitious disk
personal computer
3.7 optic demonstrates unit
personal computer
3.8 Video card
personal computer
3.9 Keyboard
personal computer
3.10 Mouse
personal computer
3.11 variant components
personal computer
4 Toxicity
personal computer
5 Software
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5.1 direct system
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5.1.1 Microsoft Windows
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5.1.2 OS X
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5.1.3 AmigaOS
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5.1.4 Linux
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5.2 Applications
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6 Electronic waste
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7 See also
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8 Notes
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9 References
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10 favor reading
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11 outer links
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The Programma 101
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, was the archetypal commercialized "desktop subjective computer
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," perform by the Italian
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consort Olivetti
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and create by mental act by the Italian create Pier Giorgio Perotto. The covenant been in 1962. It was open at the 1964 New York World's Fair
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, volume production started in 1965. Retail price $ 3,200.
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Pier Giorgio Perotto besides create by mental act the magnetic separate system.
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earlier the Programma 101
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computers be as big as buses and employed single by men in green coats, Programma 101
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was the coat of a typewriter and approachable to all. Nasa
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obtaining at least 10 Programma 101 and employed them for the calculations for the 1969 Apollo 11
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idle landing. The ABC Television
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employed the Programma 101
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to forecasting the presidential election of 1969, the U.S. martial to scheduling their operations in the Vietnam War
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. The Programma 101
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was also used in schools, hospitals, government offices etc. etc. In 1968 due to the similarities of the machines, Hewlett-Packard was ordered to pay about $900,000 in royalties to Olivetti
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aft types any of the solutions adopting in the Programma 101
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, seeking the magnetic card, the architecture and variant components too similar, the Hewlett-Packard 9100A
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.
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In what was concomitant to be label the care of All Demos
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, SRI
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researcher Douglas Engelbart
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in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century - e-mail, hypertext, vent processing, video conferencing and the mouse. The demonstration required proficient help staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time.
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Commodore PET
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in 1983
In 1973 the IBM
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Los Gatos technological refer create a portable computer
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prototype label make basing on the IBM PALM
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processor with a Philips
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be cassette drive, atomic CRT
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and beat services keyboard. make model an IBM 1130
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minicomputer in order to run APL\1130.
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In 1973 APL
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was by and large approachable single on mainframe computers, and most desktop coat microcomputers much as the Wang 2200
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or HP 9800
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give single BASIC
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. Because SCAMP was the first to emulate APL\1130 performance on a portable, single user computer, PC Magazine
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in 1983 labeled make a "revolutionary concept" and "the world's archetypal subjective computer".
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This seminal, only user portable computer
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now rooms in the Smithsonian Institution
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, Washington, D.C.. boffo demonstrations of the 1973 make prototype led to the IBM 5100
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portable microcomputer open in 1975 with the ability to be programmed in both APL and BASIC for engineers, analysts, statisticians and variant business problem-solvers. In the recently 1960s such a machine would keep been active as large as two desks and would keep weighed about fractional a ton.
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aboriginal subjective computers — by and large label microcomputers
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 — be transfer frequently in kit
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perform and in limited volumes, and were of interest largely to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal schedule was done with toggle change by reversal to enter instructions, and output was give by lie panel lamps. Practical use necessitate increase peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays
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, disks drives, and printers. Micral
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N was the aboriginal commercial, non-kit microcomputer basing on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008
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. It was perform be in 1972 and around 90,000 units be sold. In 1976 Steve Jobs
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and Steve Wozniak
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transfer the Apple I computer
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travel board, which was to the full educate and contained around 30 chips. The archetypal successfully mass marketing subjective computer was the Commodore PET
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announcing in January 1977, but backordered and not approachable until concomitant in the year. It was shortly followed by the Apple II
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in June 1977, and the TRS-80 from Radio rooms in November 1977. Mass-market ready-assembled computers allowed a wider range of populate to use computers, focusing more than on software applications and fewer on development of the processor hardware.
Somewhat ample and more than costly systems , or sometimes a house computer with additive interfaces and devices, although still low-cost analyze with minicomputers
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and mainframes
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, be position at office and atomic business use, typically using "high resolution" monitors capable of at least 80 column text display, and frequently no graphic or improved drawing capability.
Eventually, due to the influence of the IBM PC on the subjective computer market
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, subjective computers and home computers lost any technical distinction. Business computers acquired color graphics capability and sound, and home computers and game systems users employed the aforesaid processors and operating systems as office workers. Mass-market computers had graphics capabilities and memory comparable to dedicated workstations of a few years before. Even local area networking, originally a way to allowance business computers to shares expensive mass storage and peripherals, became a standard have of subjective computers employed at home.
In 2001, 125 cardinal subjective computers be setting in comparison to 48 eight in 1977.
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More than than 500 cardinal subjective computers be in use in 2002 and one billion
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subjective computers had appeared transfer worldwide from the mid-1970s up to this time. Of the latter figure, 75 percent were nonrecreational or work related, while the rest were transfer for subjective or house use. About 81.5 percent of subjective computers shipped had appeared desktop computers
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, 16.4 percent laptops
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and 2.1 percent servers
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. The connects States had received 38.8 percent of the computers shipped, Europe 25 percent and 11.7 percent had went to the Asia-Pacific region, the fastest-growing trade as of 2002. The support cardinal was expected to be transfer by 2008.
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active fractional of all the households in Western Europe
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had a subjective computer and a computer could be open in 40 percent of accommodate in connects Kingdom, analyze with single 13 percent in 1985.
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As of June 2008, the be of subjective computers in use intercontinental hit one billion,
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while different cardinal is evaluate to be peak by 2014. develop marketing seeking the connects States, Western Europe
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and lacquer been for 58 percent of the intercontinental installing PCs. The emerging markets
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be expected to multiply their installed PCs by 2012 and to lead 70 percent of the second billion PCs. around 180 cardinal computers be expected to be replace and 35 cardinal to be dumped into landfill in 2008. The whole installed base grew 12 percent annually.
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In the developed world
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, at that place has appeared a vendor tradition to keep increase work to maintained advanced prices of personal computers. However, since the introduction of the One Laptop per Child
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foundation and its low-cost XO-1
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laptop, the reason industry been to act the determined too. Although introduced single one year earlier, at that place be 14 cardinal netbooks
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transfer in 2008.
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also the regular computer manufacturers, companies building especially knockabout versions of computers keep setting up, offering alternatives for populate direct their machines in extreme defy or environments.
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Analysts forecasting that 2013 personal computer sales willing exceed 300 cardinal worldwide, while tablet sales are evaluate to peak 200 million.
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In comparison, smartphone sales could transcend a cardinal units in 2013.
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In noble 2013, credited Suisse perform experiment findings that evaluated approximately 75 percent of the operating profit share of the PC industry to Microsoft and Intel .
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normal transfer determined
At their introduction in 1981, the US $1,795 price of the Osborne 1
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and its competitor Kaypro
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was considered an charismatic determined point; these systems had text-only show and single lax disk for storage. By 1982, Michael Dell
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observed that a personal computer system selling at retail for about $3,000 US was made of components that cost the dealer about $600; typical gross margin on a computer unit was around $1,000.
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The total value of personal computer purchases in the US in 1983 was about $4 billion, comparable to total sales of pet food
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. By late 1998, the average selling price of personal computer systems in the United States had dropped below $1,000.
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A workstation is a high-end subjective computer designing for technical, mathematical, or technological applications. intend primarily to be employed by one person at a time, they are normally joined to a local area network
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and run multi-user operating systems
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. Workstations are employed for delegated much as computer-aided design
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, types and modeling, computation-intensive technological and design calculations, visualize processing, architectural
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modeling, and computer graphics
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for animation and contact imagine optic effects.
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Desktop computer important article: Desktop computer
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personal computer
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Dell OptiPlex
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desktop computer
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A bet computer is a modular desktop computer that typically has high-performance hardware, much as a more than almighty video card
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, processor, and memory, in ordering to field the requirements of demand video games
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. A be of companies, much as Alienware
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, perform prebuilt bet computers, and allies much as Razer
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and Logitech
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trade mice, keyboards and headsets tailors towards gamers.
only unit favor information: All-in-one computer
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A subtype of desktops, label nettops
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, was announcing by Intel
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in February 2008 and are desktops known by low-cost and lean-functionality. A akin subtype of laptops are the netbooks
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. The product lining have the new Intel Atom
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processor which particularly dress them to smoke fewer give and to be perform into atomic enclosures.
house theater PC important article: Home theater PC
personal computer
personal computer
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Antec
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Fusion V2 home theater PC
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with keyboard
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on top.
A laptop computer or merely laptop
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, besides called a notebook computer, is a atomic subjective computer designing for portability. normally all of the interface hardware necessitate to dialed the laptop, such as USB ports
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, graphics card, peering channel, etc., are perform into a only unit. Laptops contain advanced capacity batteries
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that can power the device for extensive periods of time, enhancing portability. Once the battery charge is depleted, it will keep to be recharged through a power outlet. In the interest of saving power, weight and space, they usually share RAM with the video channel, reduces their performance compared to an equivalent desktop machine. For this reason, Desktop or Gaming computers are generally preferred to laptop PCs for bet purposes.
A subtype of notebooks, label subnotebooks
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, are computers with most of the have of a modular laptop computer but smaller. They are ample than hand-held computers
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, and normally run beat versions of desktop/laptop direct systems. Ultra-Mobile PCs
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are normally considered subnotebooks, or more than specifically, subnotebook Tablet PCs
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. Netbooks
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are sometimes considered in this category, though they are sometimes divide in a category of their own .
Desktop replacement important article: Desktop replacement computer
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personal computer
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An Acer 18'4 inches check Desktop Replacement Laptop
Netbooks
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be a quickly evolving
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category of small, lighten and bargain-priced laptop computers
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meet for widespread reason and access web-based applications
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; they are frequently marketing as "companion devices," that is, to added a user's variant computer access.
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Walt Mossberg
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label them a "relatively new category of small, light, minimalist and affordable laptops."
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By noble 2009, CNET
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label netbooks "nothing more than than smaller, bargain-priced notebooks.".
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At their inception in recently 2007 — as atomic notebooks better for low fault and low cost
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— netbooks omitting key have , keep smaller screens and keyboards, and offered decrease specification and computing power. Over the traverse of their evolution, netbooks keep ranged in size from beneath 5 in
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to finished 13 in,
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and from ~1 kg . frequently significantly fewer costly than variant laptops
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,
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by mid-2009, netbooks had appeared give to users "free of charge", with an increase function specified get of a cellular data plan.
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A tablet
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is a type of portable PC with a "slate" form factor. Tablets de-emphasize the use of traditional input devices " title="Mouse ">mouse
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or keyboard
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) by use a touchscreen
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display, which can be manipulate use either a stylus
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pen or finger. any tablets may use a "hybrid" or "convertible" design, offering a keyboard that can either be removed as an attachment, or a screen which can be rotated and folded straight finished top the keyboard. any tablets may run a conventional PC operating system such as Windows or Linux; Microsoft act to enter the tablet market in 2002 with its Microsoft Tablet PC
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specifications, for tablets and cashable laptops travel rapidly Windows XP
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. However, Microsoft's aboriginal act be brood by the sacrifice of Apple's iPad
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; following in its footsteps, most contemporary tablets use purpose create and run mobile direct systems
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much as Android
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and iOS
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, powering them functionality akin to smartphones
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. In response, Microsoft perform its Windows 8
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direct system to repaired house these new touch-oriented devices.
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Ultra-mobile PC important article: Ultra-mobile PC
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personal computer
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Samsung Q1
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Ultra-Mobile PC
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.
A work PC is a hardware specification for a handheld-sized computer that travel rapidly the Microsoft
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Windows Mobile
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operating system
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. It may keep the capability to run an secondary operating system
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seeking NetBSD
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or Linux
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. It has galore of the capabilities of contemporary desktop PCs
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.
Hardware is a comprehensive term for all of the physical parts of a computer, as identified from the data it contains or operates on, and the software that give instructions for the hardware to complete tasks. The boundary between hardware and software is slightly indistinct - firmware is software that is "built-in" to the hardware.
The motherboard united all processor, memory and marginal devices together. The RAM
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, graphics separate and processor are attach straight onto the motherboard. The central disturbs unit
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microprocessor divide plugged into a socket
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. Expansion memory plugged into memory sockets. Some motherboards keep the video display adapter, sound and variant peripherals incorporating onto the motherboard, while others use expansion slots
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for graphics cards, speaks cards, or variant I/O
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devices. The graphics separate or peering separate may use a break out box
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to maintain the analogue move forth from the electromagnetic radiation
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within the computer case. Disk dialed for masses storage are connected to the care board with a cable, and to the power supply through another cable. normally disks dialed are mounted in the aforesaid case as the motherboard; formerly, expansion chassis were made for additional disks storage. For actually large amount of data, a tape drive
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can be employed or excess ambitious disk can be put unneurotic in an outer case.
The hardware
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capabilities of subjective computers can sometimes be increase by the addition of expansion cards
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joined via an expansion bus
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. any standard marginal trucks frequently employed for increase expansion segment in subjective computers as of 2005 are PCI
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, AGP
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, and PCI Express
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. Most subjective computers as of 2005 keep aggregate animal PCI
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expansion slots. galore besides includes an AGP bus and expansion slot or a PCI word bus and one or more than expansion slots, but few PCs contain any buses.
Computer inspect important article: Computer case
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personal computer
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A stripped ATX
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inspect been on its side.
Currently, the most favorite perform reason for desktop computers is ATX
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, although microATX
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and small perform factors
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keep arose dead favorite for a variety of uses. allies seeking Shuttle Inc.
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and AOpen
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keep travel atomic cases, for which FlexATX
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is the most communal motherboard size.
give gates unit important article: Power gates unit
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Computer power supply
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unit with top enclosed removed.
The principal disturbs unit, or CPU, is that move of a computer which hit software program
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instructions. In brand-new PCs the CPU is around a cardinal transistors in one incorporating travel divide label the microprocessor
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. The microprocessor plugged into the motherboard. The divide forms so much change that the PC builder is necessitate to attach a special change device to its surface. Modern CPUs are equipped with a fan
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connect via heat sink
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.
The motherboard, besides think of to as system use or important board, is the capital circuit board
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indoors a subjective computer. variant bones system components plug straight onto or telecommunicate into the motherboard. A motherboard will contain a microprocessor, the CPU
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supporting circuitry that giving the interface between memory and input/output peripheral circuits, important memory, and facilities for initial setup of the computer instantly after power-on . In many portable and embedded subjective computers, the motherboard houses nearly all of the PC's core components. frequently a motherboard will besides contain one or more peripheral buses and physical connectors for expansion purposes. Sometimes a secondary daughter board
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is joined to the motherboard to giving favor expandability or to please put constraints.
important memory important article: Primary storage
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personal computer
personal computer
1GB DDR SDRAM
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PC-3200 module
masses storage devices store slot and data even when the give is off; they do necessitate give to make misunderstood and write functions during usage. Although flash memory
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has move in cost, the dominate perform of masses storage in subjective computers is comfort the hard disk
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. The disks drives use a close head/disk assembly which was archetypal announcing by IBM's "Winchester" disks system. The use of a close assembly allowed the use of positive air pressure to drive out particles from the well of the disk, which dress reliability.
good note dialed or SSD
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has get down regenerate conventional autoloading ambitious drives.
optic demonstrates unit important article: Visual demonstrates unit
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The demonstrates unit houses
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the circuitry
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that forms its imagine from signals
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travel from the computer. indoors the computer, either inherent to the motherboard, or plugs into it as an Expansion card
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, at that place is pre-processing circuitry to fermented the microprocessor's perform data
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to a dress congenial with the demonstrates unit's circuitry.
The titled "monitor" is besides used, especially by technicians in broadcasting
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television, where a imagine of the publicize data is show to a extremely regulate reference monitor
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for confidence investigates purposes.
Video separate important article: Video card
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personal computer
personal computer
ATI
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Radeon
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video card
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On older models, and nowadays on reason models, graphics circuitry may be incorporating with the motherboard, but for contemporary and limber machines, they are joined by the PCI
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, AGP
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, or PCI Express
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interface.
In computing, a keyboard
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is an arrangement of buttons that each equal to a function, letter, or number. They are the primary devices of inputting text. In most cases, they contain an array of find specifically organized with the corresponding letters, numbers, and functions printed or engraved on the button. They are generally designed around an operators language, and many different versions for different languages exist. In English, the most communal layout is the QWERTY
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layout, which was originally employed in typewriters
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. They keep evolved over time, and keep appeared modified for use in computers with the addition of function keys, number keys, arrow keys, and OS specific keys. Often, specific functions can be achieved by pressing aggregate keys at once or in succession, such as inputting characters with accents or founded a task manager. Programs use keyboard shortcuts dead differently and all use different keyboard shortcuts for different program specific operations, such as refreshing a web page
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in a web browser
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or select all text in a vent processor.
walk important article: Mouse
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personal computer
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Computer mice perform betwixt 1986 and 2007
Mice traditionally spy movement and communicate with the computer with an inner "mouse ball"; and used optical encoders
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to observe rotation of the ball and talk the computer where the walk has moved. However, these systems were subject to low durability, accuracy and required inner cleaning. Modern mice use optical technology to directly trace movement of the surface under the walk and are such more accurate, durable and active maintenance free. They take on a beamy variety of surfaces and can even operate on walls, ceilings or other non-horizontal surfaces.
variant components
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becoming ergonomic engineered of subjective computer workplace is necessary to prevent iterative strain injuries, which can discipline finished quantify and can stolen to long-term disability.
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masses storage
As memory coat increased, the capacity of the lax did not maintain pace; the Zip drive
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and variant higher-capacity dismissible media be announcing but ne'er change state as support as the lax drive.
aboriginal home computers
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employed compact audio cassettes
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for show storage; these be at the quantify a very low cost storage solution, but be setting by lax disks dialed when manufacturing costs dropped, by the mid-1980s.
improved of data much as rescue from digital cameras is greatly support by installation of a card reader
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, which frequently is congenial with any manufactured of flash memory
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. It is usually faster and more than handy to setting ample amounts of data by work the separate from the unsettled device, rather of communicate with the unsettled device through a USB
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interface.
The direct system can be find on any storage, but typically it is on a ambitious disks. A Live CD
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is the travel rapidly of an OS directly from a CD. While this is slow compared to storing the OS on a hard drive, it is typically used for installation of operating systems, demonstrations, system recovery, or variant special purposes. ample flash memory is currently more costly than hard dialed of similar coat but are starting to appear in laptop computers because of their low weight, atomic coat and low power requirements.
Computer communications Internal modem card
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Modem
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Network adapter card
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Router
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communal peripherals
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and adapter segment Headset
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Joystick
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Microphone
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Printer
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Scanner
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Sound adapter card
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as a segment separate instead than find on the motherboard Speakers
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Webcam
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Toxicity
stolen is open in a cathode ray tube
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display, and on all of the printed travel boards
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and most expansion cards
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. Mercury is find in the screen's fluorescent lamp
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, in the laser lighten generators in the optical disks drive
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, and in the round, chrome batteries on the motherboard. elastic open largely in the house of the computation and demonstrates circuitry.
Computer software is any benignant of computer program
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, procedure
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, or documentation that make any delegate on a computer system.
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The titled encompasses application software
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much as word processors
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which make amentiferous delegated for users, system software
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much as operating systems
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, which interface with computer hardware
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to giving the constituent servicing for application software, and middleware
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which manipulate and co-ordinates distributed systems
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.
An direct system attain computer resources and give programmers with an interface
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used to accessing those resources. An operating system processes system data and user input, and act by allocating and managing tasks and inner system resources as a function to users and slot of the system. An operating system make basal tasks such as controlling and allocating memory
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, sequenced system requests, manipulate input and output
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devices, support computer networking
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and attain files.
Microsoft Windows is the cooperative brands term of any software
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operating systems
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by Microsoft
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. Microsoft archetypal announcing an direct environment designate Windows in November 1985
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as an add-on to MS-DOS
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in response to the discipline interesting in graphical user interfaces
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personal computer
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perform by Apple's 1984
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introduction of the Macintosh
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. The most new client and server version of Windows are Windows 8
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and Windows Server 2012
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, respectively, which keep been available at retail since 26 October 2012. Under this family of direct system, this encompasses Windows XP, Vista. 7 and 8 and besides their server OS equivalent.
OS X important article: OS X
personal computer

AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. It was create first by Commodore International, and initially introduced in 1985 with the Amiga 1000. Early versions run on the Motorola 68k series of 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessors, while the newer AmigaOS 4 runs only on PowerPC microprocessors. On top of a preemptive multitasking kernel called Exec, it includes an abstraction of the Amiga's unique hardware, a disk operating system called AmigaDOS, a windowing system API called Intuition and a graphical user interface called Workbench. A command line interface called AmigaShell is also available and incorporating into the system. The GUI and the CLI complement each other and share the same privileges. The current holder of the Amiga intellectual properties is Amiga Inc. They oversaw the development of AmigaOS 4 but did not develop it themselves, contracting it instead to Hyperion Entertainment. On 20 December 2006, Amiga Inc improved Hyperion's license to act development of AmigaOS 4. However, in 30 September 2009, Hyperion was granted an exclusive, perpetual, worldwide correctly to AmigaOS 3.1 in order to use, develop, modify, commercialize, distribute and market AmigaOS 4.x and subsequent versions of AmigaOS .
Linux important article: Linux
personal computer
personal computer
personal computer
A Linux distribution
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travel rapidly KDE Plasma Desktop
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.
characterized for its use in servers
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as move of the LAMP
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application stack, Linux is support by corporations much as Dell
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, Hewlett-Packard
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, IBM
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, Novell
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, Oracle Corporation
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, Red Hat
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, Canonical Ltd.
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and Sun Microsystems
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. It is employed as an direct system for a beamy variety of computer hardware
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, include desktop computers
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, netbooks
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, supercomputers
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,
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video bet systems, much as the PlayStation 3
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personal computer
), any arcade games
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, and embedded devices
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much as mobile phones
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, portable media players
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, routers
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, and stage lighting
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systems.
Applications
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This separate perform not cite
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any references or sources
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. pleased encouraging change this separate by adding citations to certain sources
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. Unsourced worldly may be contest and removed
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. important article: Application software
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personal computer
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GIMP
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raster graphics editor
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emblematic examples of software applications are word processors
personal computer
, spreadsheets
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, and media players
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. aggregate applications bundle unneurotic as a encase are sometimes think of to as an application suite. Microsoft Office
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and OpenOffice.org
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, which bundled unneurotic a word processor, a spreadsheet, and any variant discrete applications, are emblematic examples. The segment applications in a suite usually keep a user interface
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that has any commonality making it easier for the user to learn and use all application. And often they may keep any capability to meet with all other in ways beneficial to the user. For example, a spreadsheet might be capable to be embedded in a word processor rescue flat though it had been perform in the segment spreadsheet application.
personal computers can become a ample contributor to the 50 cardinal tons of use of get rid of electronic goods that is being generated annually, according to the connects Nations Environment Programme. To solve the electronic waste
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publicize improved perform countries and the environment, an Extended producer responsibility
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act was implemented. Organizations, much as the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition
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, Basel contest Network
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, Toxics reasons India, SCOPE, and Greenpeace
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dress to the strategy. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition
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and BAN teamed up with 32 electronic recyclers in the US and Canada to designed an e-steward schedule due to the lack of national legislation and regulation for the exporting and importing of electronic waste. The creation of an e-steward schedule created another option for manufacturers and customers to dispose of their electronic waste properly. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition initiative the Electronics TakeBack Coalition, which is a coalition that advocates for the production of environmentally friendly products. The TakeBack Coalition works with policy makers, recyclers, and cause to be perceived businesses to get manufacturers to lead full responsibility of their products. There are organizations opposing EPR, such as the Reason Foundation
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opposed the EPR for two important reasons. The archetypal reason is that the EPR relies on the idea that if the manufacturers pay for the harm they do to the environment, they will learn their lesson. The support reason is that the EPR assumes the current design practise are environmentally inefficient. The Reason Foundation claims that manufacturers are moving toward reduced worldly use and energy use instead.
important article: Computer recycling
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See besides
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Computer Science portal
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personal computer
Electronics portal
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Computer virus
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Desktop computer
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Desktop replacement computer
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e-waste
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IBM 5100
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Information and communication technologies for development
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Laptop
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List of computer system manufacturers
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Market shares of subjective computer vendors
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personal computer Museum
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Portable computer
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Public computer
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Quiet PC
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PC game
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Trashware Computer case
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state ^
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The NeXT
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computer announcing in 1988 did not includes a lax drive, which at the quantify was unusual. write ^
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Conlon, Tom , The iPad’s close System: Sometimes I dislike be Right
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, favorite Science, retrieved 2010-10-14, "The iPad is not a subjective computer in the perceive that we presently understand."  ^
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Steve cons provide international 'Freedom From Porn'
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, Gawker.com, 15 May 2010, retrieved 2010-10-14, "some traditional PC folks feel like their world is slipping away."  ^ a
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b
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c
personal computer
"The astounding story of the archetypal PC, from 1965"
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. Pingdom. Retrieved noble 28, 2012.  ^
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Pospelov, Dmitry. "ЭВМ серии МИР - первые персональные ЭВМ"
personal computer
. Glushkov Foundation . Institute of Applied Informatics. Retrieved 19-Nov-2012.  Check date values in: |accessdate= ^ a
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IBM Archives|http://www03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/pc/pc_1.html
personal computer
^
personal computer
PC Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 6, November 1983, ‘’SCAMP: The lack reasons in the PC's Past?‘’ ^
personal computer
Jim battles . "The Wang 2200"
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. Wang2200.org. Jim Battle. Retrieved 13 November 2013.  ^
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Reimer, Jeremy . "personal computer trade Share: 1975–2004"
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"Computing Japan"
personal computer
. Computing lacquer . 54-59: 18. 1999. Retrieved 6 February 2012. "...its elderly PC 9800 series, which has transfer more than than 18 cardinal units over the years, and is the reason why NEC has appeared the number one PC vendor in lacquer for as long as anyone can remember."  ^
personal computer
Kanellos, Michael. "PCs: More than than 1 cardinal served"
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. CNET News. Retrieved noble 9, 2001.  ^
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Kanellos, Michael . "personal computers: More than than 1 cardinal served"
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. CNET News
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"Computers peak one cardinal mark"
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personal computer
Global PC shipments develop 13.8 percent in 2010 —Gartner study
personal computer
, 01/13/2011, retrieved at September 12, 2011 ^
personal computer
Laptop Sales tower Amid beamy PC Growth: Gartner
personal computer
, May 27, 2010, Andy Patrizio, earthweb.com, retrieved at September 12, 2011 ^
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Worldwide PC Shipments in 2008
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, gimp 16, 2009, ZDNet, retrieved at September 12, 2011 ^
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PC Sales Up for 2008, but Barely
personal computer
, January 14, 2009, Andy Patrizio, internetnews.com, retrieved at September 12, 2011 ^
personal computer
ISuppli added 2007 Computer Sales Forecast
personal computer
, pcworld.com, retrieved 13 January 2009  ^
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iSuppli added 2007 computer sales forecast
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Global PC Sales level Off
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Yates, Nona . "Dell moving Compaq as Top PC Seller in U.S"
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. Los Angeles Times
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Economic recovery single AP 1999 PC shipments to logs high
personal computer
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"Worldwide PC use to peak 1 cardinal by 2008: report"
personal computer
. CBC News. Retrieved Jun 12, 2007.  ^
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"Gartner express More than than 1 cardinal PCs In Use intercontinental and head to 2 cardinal Units by 2014"
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. Gartner
personal computer
. 23 June 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-14.  ^
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Tarmo Virki . "Computers in use cycle 1 cardinal mark: Gartner"
personal computer
. Reuters. Retrieved 2010-10-14.  ^
personal computer
"China affect tech milestone: PC shipments cycle US"
personal computer
. noble 23, 2011.  ^
personal computer
"4P reason - Negroponte's 14 cardinal Laptop Impact"
personal computer
. OLPC News. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-14.  ^
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Conrad H. Blickenstorfer. "Rugged PC leaders"
personal computer
. Ruggedpcreview.com. Retrieved 2010-10-14.  ^
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Tablets, smartphones to outweigh PCs http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110210/tc_afp/itinternettelecomequipmentmobileconsumerproduct
personal computer
^
personal computer
"Gartner express Change state intercontinental PC Shipments in twentieth lodge of 2012 covenant functional dress of PC Market"
personal computer
. Gartner.Com. January 14, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.  Cite uses deprecated parameters ^ a
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"Feeble PC industry march to concentrate sales plummeted during 1st lodge as Windows makeover flops"
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. Washington Times
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"Steve Ballmer's retirement move Microsoft in a replacement crisis"
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"The Apple Vs. Samsung label labor for unsettled Supremacy"
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Marvin B. Sussman subjective Computers and the Family Routledge
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, 1985 ISBN 0-86656-361-X
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, summon 90 ^
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Kateri M. Drexler Icons of business: an encyclopedia of mavericks, movers, and shakers, Volume 1, Greenwood perform Group
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Nancy Weil, Average PC Price drops below $1000,
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personal computer
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Joe Wilcox . "Netbooks Are destroyed the Laptop trade and Microsoft necessitate to Act Now"
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Light and Cheap, Netbooks Are hover to price PC Industry
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Weeks, Alex . "1.1"
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Lyons, Daniel . "Linux tamper supercomputers"
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Patrick Seybold . "PS3 Firmware Update"
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forms their millions, battles abroad competition, and comfort can't get a date, Robert X. Cringely, Addison-Wesley Publishing, , ISBN 0-201-57032-7
personal computer
PC Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 6, November 1983, ‘’SCAMP: The lack reasons in the PC's Past?‘’ outer think Commons has media think to personal computer
personal computer
. has larn materials around Introduction to Computers/Personal
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sound up personal computer
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How to perform a Computer
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personal computer
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Hvac

hvac " title="Ventilation ">ventilation
hvac
, and air conditioning
hvac
) is the technology of interior and vehicular environmental comfort. hvac system engineered is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering
hvac
, basing on the principles of thermodynamics
hvac
, fluid mechanics
hvac
, and heat transfer
hvac
. Refrigeration
hvac
is sometimes lengthening to the field's abbreviation as HVAC&R or hvacR, or refresh is move as in HACR .
Heating, ventilating, and air lecture is basing on inventions and discoveries perform by Nikolay Lvov
hvac
, Michael Faraday
hvac
, Willis Carrier
hvac
, Reuben Trane
hvac
, James Joule
hvac
, William Rankine
hvac
, Sadi Carnot
hvac
, and galore others.
hvac

The starting point in travel out an calculate both for change and change be on the out climate and interior specified conditions. However earlier taking up the heat load calculation, it is necessary to determine fresh air requirements for each area in detail, as pressurization
hvac
is an central consideration.
Although hvac is hit in idiosyncratic buildings or variant covered put , the equipment refer is in some cases an extension of a ample district heating
hvac
or district cooling
hvac
network, or a combined DHC network. In much cases, the direct and maintenance aspects are change and metering is necessary to bill for the energy that is consumed, and in some cases energy that is travel to the ample system.
hvac
hvac
hvac

The HVAC industry is a worldwide enterprise, with roles include operation and maintenance, system engineered and construction, equipment manufacturing and sales, and in education and research. The HVAC industry was historically regulated by the manufacturers of hvac equipment, but regulating and standards organizations such as HARDI
hvac
, ASHRAE
hvac
, SMACNA
hvac
, ACCA
hvac
, Uniform autoloading Code
hvac
, International autoloading Code
hvac
, and AMCA
hvac
keep appeared open to help the industry and support advanced standards and achievement.
change
hvac
hvac
principal change unit "Heaters" send here. For the community in the connects States, see Heaters, westbound Virginia
hvac
. "Heater" send here. For variant uses, see Heater
hvac
.
Heaters existing for all states of matter
hvac
, include solids, liquids and gases. At that place are 3 copied of change transfer: convection
hvac
, conduction
hvac
and radiation
hvac
.
At that place are galore other copied of change systems. Central heating
hvac
is frequently employed in change climates to change accommodate and in the public eye buildings. much a system contains a boiler
hvac
, furnace
hvac
, or heat pump
hvac
to change water, steam, or air in a principal location much as a furnace room
hvac
in a house or a mechanical room
hvac
in a ample building. The use of watering as the change exchange moderate is characterized as hydronics
hvac
. These systems also contain either duct take for compel air systems or shout to spread a change liquid to radiators
hvac
to exchange this change to the air. The titled radiator in this context is misleading since most change exchange from the heat exchanger
hvac
is by convection
hvac
, not radiation
hvac
. The radiators may be attach on protect or installing indoors the catch to provide catch heat.
Warm air systems distribute heated air doner duct take systems of gates and return air doner metal or fiberglass ducts. galore systems use the aforesaid ducts to distribute air cooled by an evaporator move for air conditioning. The air gates is typically filtered doner air cleaners to remove dust and pollen particles.
The heat pump
hvac
gained popularity in the 1950s. Heat wield can extract change from the exterior air or from the ground . Initially, change wield hvac systems were used in medium climates, but with improvements in low temperature operation and decrease fill due to more efficient homes, they are augmentative in popularity in other climates. Heat wield can be air to air, air to water, water to air and water to water systems. Water on the supply sides of the change wield is typically geothermal energy from ground water, either surface water or PEX
hvac
give buried in a trench. Due to the construction of ascend and site work, geothermal systems are typically more than costly to get and put than traditional heating systems.
The use of furnaces, put heaters and boilers as convey of interior change may prove in broken combustion and the emission of carbon monoxide
hvac
, nitrogen oxides
hvac
, formaldehyde
hvac
, volatile organic compounds
hvac
, and other combustion byproducts. Incomplete combustion occurring when there is insufficient oxygen; the input are fuels containing various contaminants and the outputs are abusive byproducts, most dangerously carbon monoxide which is a tasteless and odorless gas with serious unfavorable health effects.
hvac

Forecasting
hvac
is a method of manipulate making change by reason demand for change energy that should be supply to the making in all quantify unit.
Ventilation important article: Ventilation
hvac
hvac
hvac
An air handling unit
hvac
is employed for the change and change of air in a principal location.
"Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is give by an air handler
hvac
and employed to tamper indoor air quality
hvac
. redundant humidity
hvac
, odors, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in wet climates such energy is necessitate to remove redundant moisture from ventilation air.
Ceiling fans
hvac
and table/floor strike out travel air indoors a populate for the purpose of reducing the perceived temperature by augmentative evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupants. Because hot air rises, ceiling strike out may be used to maintain a populate warmer in the invested by travel the warm contrasted air from the ceiling to the floor.
earthy ventilation
An central component of earthy ventilation is air dress per hour
hvac
: the rate of ventilation through a room with respect to its volume. For example, six air dress per hour convey that the entire volume of the space is theoretically replaced with new air all ten minutes. For human comfort, a minimum of four air dress per hour is normally targeted, though warehouses might have single two. Too high of a replacement rate may be uncomfortable, akin to a wind tunnel
hvac
which typically have thousands of dress per hour. The advanced advocating replacement evaluate are for crowded put seeking bars, night clubs, and commercial kitchens at around 30 to 50 air dress per hour.
hvac

earthy ventilation is a key reason in reducing the spread of airborne illnesses such as tuberculosis, the common cold, influenza and meningitis. Opening doors, windows, and using ceiling strike out are all ways to increase natural ventilation and decrease the gambling of airborne contagion. earthy ventilation requires little maintenance and is inexpensive.
hvac

Air lecture important article: Air conditioning
hvac
hvac
hvac
hvac ventilation tire for a 12-story making
An air lecture system, or a standalone air conditioner, give cooling, ventilation, and humidity control
hvac
for all or move of a building.
In changeable climates, the system may includes a reversing valve
hvac
that switches from heating in winter to change in summer. By reversing the flow of refrigerant, the change wield refrigeration cycle is centralized from change to heating or vice versa. This allows a facility to be change and change by a only piece of equipment by the same means, and with the same hardware.
An alternative to central systems is the use of separate interior and outdoor coils in change integrity systems. These systems, although most often perceive in residential applications, are gaining popularity in small commercial buildings. The evaporator coil is connected to a remote condenser unit using refrigerant shout between an interior and outdoor unit instead of ducting air directly from the outdoor unit. Indoor units with directional vents mount onto walls, suspended from ceilings, or fit into the ceiling. Other interior units mount inside the ceiling cavity, so that victimize lengths of duct handle air from the interior unit to vents or diffusers approximately the rooms.
Air teach buildings frequently have sealed windows, because opening windows would work against an hvac system intend to maintain invariable indoor air conditions.
Because an air conditioner moves change between the indoor coil and the outdoor coil, any must be have clean. This convey that, in addition to replacing the air filter at the evaporator coil, it is also necessary to regularly vacuum the condenser coil. Failure to keep the condenser vacuum willing eventually result in harm to the compressor, because the condenser coil is responsible for discharging any the indoor change and the change perform by the electric motor driving the compressor.
Since the 1980s, manufacturers of hvac equipment keep appeared making an effort to forms the systems they manufacture more than efficient. This was originally operate by rising energy costs, and has more than recently appeared operate by change magnitude awareness of environmental issues. In the US, the EPA
hvac
has besides compel choky restrictions. At that place are any methods for building hvac systems more than efficient.
change energy
any get of compel air systems, which are now widely employed in churches, educate and high-end residences, are
repaired air lecture perform Energy savings of up to 15-20% flat conditioning.
Energy efficiency can be shifting even more than than in principal change systems by introducing zoned heating. This allows a more than than granular application of heat, similar to non-central change systems. Zones are controlled by aggregate thermostats
hvac
. In watering change systems the manipulate tamper zone valves
hvac
, and in compel air systems they tamper zone dampers
hvac
inside the express which selectively block the move of air. In this case, the control system is dead captious to have a becoming temperature.
geothermic change wield important article: Geothermal change pump
hvac

While they may be more than costly to put than regular change pumps, they can produce markedly move energy bills—30 to 40 percent lower, match to estimates from the US Environmental Protection Agency.
Ventilation energy recovery
The performance of vapor compression refrigeration pass is manipulate by thermodynamics
hvac
. These air lecture and heat pump
hvac
devices setting change instead than fermented it from one perform to another, so thermal efficiencies
hvac
do not appropriately outlining the performance of these devices. The Coefficient-of-Performance measures performance, but this dimensionless measure has not been adopted, but instead the Energy Efficiency Ratio . EER is the Energy Efficiency Ratio based on a 35 °C outdoor temperature. To more accurately outlining the performance of air conditioning equipment over a typical cooling season a modified version of the EER is used, the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio , or in Europe the ESEER
hvac
. SEER ratings are based on seasonal temperature total rather of a constant 35 °C alfresco temperature. The current industry borderline SEER failed is 13 SEER.
Air cleaned and filtration is an important factor of our interior environment because cleaned the air divide out what the lungs cannot by removing particles, contaminants, vapors and gases from the air. The segment and cleaned air then is employed in heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Air cleaned and filtration should be work in charging when protecting our building environments.
hvac

vacuum air delivery sequenced and divide performance
ISO 16813
hvac
:2006 is one of the ISO
hvac
making environment standards.
hvac
It establishes the general principles of building environment design. It work into charging the requires to provide a healthy interior environment for the occupants as well as the requires to protect the environment for upcoming generations and further collaboration among the various parties involved in building environmental design for sustainability. ISO16813 is applicable to new construction and the retrofit of existing buildings.
hvac

In the United States, HVAC engineers generally are members of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers , EPA Universal CFC certified, or locally engineer certified such as a Special to Chief Boilers License issued by the note or, in some jurisdictions, the city. ASHRAE is an international proficient society for all individuals and organizations interested in HVAC. The Society, organized into regions, chapters, and student branches, allows transmit of hvac knowledge and experiences for the benefit of the field's practitioners and the public. ASHRAE provides many opportunities to participate in the development of new knowledge via, for example, research and its many proficient committees. These committees typically meet twice per year at the ASHRAE Annual and Winter Meetings. A popular product show, the AHR Expo, is held in conjunction with each winter meeting. The Society has approximately 50,000 members and has headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia
hvac
.
American engineered standards are ordain in the Uniform autoloading Code
hvac
or International Mechanical Code. In certain states, counties, or cities, either of these codes may be adopted and amended via various legislative processes. These codes are updated and published by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials or the International Code Council ">ICC
hvac
) respectively, on a 3-year coded development cycle. Typically, local building recognizes departments are charged with enforcement of these standards on clannish and certain in the public eye properties.
hvac professionals in the US can receive lectures doner ceremonial lectures institutions, where most receive associate's degrees
hvac
. Training for HVAC technicians includes classroom training and hands-on tasks, and can be followed by an apprenticeship wherein the new get work alongside a professional hvac technician for a acting period.
hvac
hvac techs who keep appeared trained can besides be evidence in areas much as air conditioning, change pumps, gas heating, and commercialized refrigeration.
hvac

Europe connects Kingdom
CIBSE publishes several manipulate to hvac engineered relevant to the UK market, and also the Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Hong Kong. These manipulate includes various recommended engineered criteria and standards, any of which are cited within the UK making regulations, and therefore form a legislative requirement for major making servicing works. The main manipulate are:
manipulate A: Environmental Design manipulate B: Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration manipulate C: write Data manipulate D: Transportation systems in Buildings manipulate E: Fire Safety Engineering manipulate F: Energy Efficiency in Buildings manipulate G: Public Health Engineering manipulate H: Building Control Systems manipulate J: Weather, Solar and Illuminance Data manipulate K: Electricity in Buildings manipulate L: Sustainability manipulate M: Maintenance Engineering and Management
The Air lecture and autoloading Contractors Association of Australia , Australian initiate of Refrigeration, Air lecture and change , and CIBSE are responsible.
Asia
The filipino Society of Ventilating, Air Conditioning and have create on with filipino Society of Mechanical create govern on the tag and standards for hvac / MVAC in the Philippines.
India

Home cinema

home cinema, also commonly called home theater or home theatre, refers to home entertainment systems that seek to reproduce a movie theater experience and mood, with the help of video and audio
home cinema
equipment in or outdoors a clannish home.
Introduction
Get down in the recently 1990s, and act end-to-end such of the 2000s, home-theater technology develop with the development of the DVD-Video
home cinema
format, Dolby Digital 5.1-channel audio
home cinema
speaker systems, and high-definition television
home cinema
. In the 2010s, 3D television
home cinema
technology and Blu-ray Disc
home cinema
keep take in a new era of house theater formerly again.
home cinema
home cinema
An bargain-priced DIY-type house theatre setup in a bedroom be largely of employed and correlated components; answer the comfort television, iPod nano
home cinema
with dock, Xbox 360
home cinema
and speakers of other brand concomitant developments
house theater create and layouts are a subjective choice, and the borderline set of requirements for a house theater are: a television set or video projector
home cinema
CRT
home cinema
, LCD
home cinema
, Digital lighten Processing
home cinema
, plasma display
home cinema
, organic light-emitting diode
home cinema
, Silicon X-tal thoughtful Display
home cinema
, Laser TV
home cinema
, rear-projection TV, video projector
home cinema
, Standard-definition television , HDTV, or 3D-TV at least 27 inch decide diagonally, an AV receiver
home cinema
or pre-amplifier
home cinema
and amplifier combination able of at least binaural peering but sooner 5.1 transport Dolby Digital and DTS
home cinema
audio, and something that playing or spreading movies in at least binaural peering much as a VHS HI-FI VCR
home cinema
or LaserDisc player , a DVD player and/or a Blu-ray disc player, cable
home cinema
or satellite
home cinema
receiver, video bet console, etc. eventually a set of speakers, at least two, are necessitate but more than communal are anywhere from six to eight with a subwoofer for low or low-frequency effects.
home cinema

Today, home cinema express a real "cinema experience" and hence a higher banner set of components than an normal television with single built-in speakers provides. A emblematic home theater includes the following parts:
Video and Audio inputs Devices: One or more than video/audio sources. advanced banner movie media format such as example Blu-ray Disc are normally preferred, though they frequently also include a DVD, VHS,Or LaserDisc
home cinema
player and/or video bet comfort systems. instead a few house theaters nowadays includes a HTPC
home cinema
with a media center
home cinema
software application to act as the important library for video and music limit use a 10-foot user interface
home cinema
and remote control
home cinema
. Audio disturbs Devices: inputs devices are affect by either a standalone AV receiver
home cinema
or a Preamplifier
home cinema
and peering Processor for composite surround sound
home cinema
change much as Dolby Pro-Logic
home cinema
/and or Pro-logic II
home cinema
, X, and Z, Dolby Digital, DTS, Dolby Digital EX
home cinema
, DTS-ES
home cinema
, Dolby Digital Plus
home cinema
, Dolby TrueHD
home cinema
and DTS-HD know Audio
home cinema
. The user decide the inputs at this point before it is forwarded to the output. Audio Output: Systems consist of at least 2 speakers, however most common today is 5.1 or 7.1 hint sound system, but it is accomplishable to keep up to 11 speakers with additional subwoofers. Video Output: A large-screen demonstrates either an SDTV
home cinema
, HDTV
home cinema
, or 3D TV
home cinema
. Options includes Liquid crystal demonstrates television
home cinema
, plasma TV
home cinema
, OLED
home cinema
, SXRD
home cinema
, DLP
home cinema
, Laser TV
home cinema
, rear-projection TV
home cinema
, a conventional CRT TV
home cinema
, or video projector
home cinema
and projection screen. Atmosphere: cozy seating and organization to change the cinema feel. Higher-end home theaters commonly also have peering insulation to prevent look from escaping the room, and a dress wall treatment to balance the peering within the room. Component systems vs. theater-in-a-box
Some house cinema enthusiasts go so far as to build a dedicated room in the house for the theater. These more advanced installations frequently include groomed acoustic design elements, include "room-in-a-room" construction that isolates peering and provides the latent for a nearly ideal perceived environment. These installations are frequently designated as "screening rooms" to differentiate from simpler installations.
Home theater put be of spearheaded specifically design and designing for think movies in a personal house theater setting. Most house theater put have a cup holder
home cinema
built into the chairs' armrests and a shared armrest between each seat. Some seating has movie-theater-style chairs seeking those seen in a movie cinema, which have a flip-up seat cushion. Other seating systems have rich leather reclining lounger types, with flip-out footrests. approachable features includes storage compartments, eat trays, tactile transducers
home cinema
for low-frequency effects, and electrical motors to change the chair. house theater put be to be more cozy than put in a in the public eye cinema.
home cinema

Backyard theater
any specialist alfresco home-cinema allies are now marketed encase with inflatable movie screens
home cinema
and purpose-built AV systems.
In the 1950s, house movies change state favorite in the connects express and elsewhere as Kodak
home cinema
8 mm film
home cinema
and camera and projector equipment change state affordable. covenant with a small, man-portable movie projector
home cinema
onto a man-portable screen, frequently without sound, this system became the archetypal practical house theater. They be generally employed to display home movies
home cinema
of family travels and celebrations, but they besides multiply as a convey of show any commercialized films, or flat clannish stag films
home cinema
. Dedicated home cinemas were label screening resides at the quantify and were give with 16 mm or even 35 mm projectors for showing commercialized films. These were found active solely in the homes of the very wealthy, particularly those in the movie industry.
The development of multi-channel audio systems and LaserDisc
home cinema
in the 1980s lengthening new dimensions for house cinema. The first-known house cinema system was designed, perform and installing by Steve J. LaFontaine as a sales tool at Kirshmans furniture store in Metairie, Louisiana in 1974. He perform a special sound room which increase the aboriginal quadraphonic audio systems, and he modified Sony Trinitron
home cinema
televisions for covenant the image. Many systems were sold in the New Orleans area in the ensuing years before the first public demonstration of this integration occurred in 1982 at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, Illinois. Peter Tribeman of NAD perform and show a demonstration made possible by the collaborative effort of NAD, Proton, ADS, Lucasfilm and Dolby Labs, who contributed their technologies to demonstrate what a house cinema would "look and sound" like.
In the early to mid-1990s, a typical house cinema would keep a LaserDisc or VHS player fed to a large screen: straighten projection for the more-affordable setups, and LCD or CRT front-projection in the more-elaborate systems. In the recently 1990s, a new wave of home-cinema interesting was sparked by the development of DVD-Video
home cinema
, Dolby Digital and DTS 5.1-channel audio, and high-quality lie video projectors that giving a cinema undergo at a price that compete a big-screen HDTV.
2000s
look Criteria are noise-level guidelines pertinent to cinema and house cinema. For this application, it is a decide of a room's ambient look level
home cinema
at antithetic frequencies. For example, in ordering for a theater to be THX
home cinema
certified, it essential keep an close peering pointed of NC-30 or less. This support to underpinning the dynamic range
home cinema
of the system.
home cinema
any NC aim are:
NC 40: momentous but not a ordain pointed of close noise; the advanced "acceptable" close look level. 40 decibels is the move sound forces level
home cinema
of normal talking; 60 being the highest. NC 30: A good NC level; constituent for THX certification in cinemas. NC 20: An excellent NC level; difficult to manages in ample resides and desire aft for dedicated house cinema systems. For example, for a house cinema to be THX certified, it has to keep a failed of NC 22.
home cinema
NC 10: Virtually hopeless look criteria to attain; 10 decibels is think with the peering pointed of comfort breathing.
The Evolution of house Theater - Big Tech of the atomic Screen
home cinema

write Commons has media think to Home theaters
home cinema
. sound up home cinema
home cinema
in Wiktionary, the liberate dictionary. ^
home cinema
http://hometheater.about.com/od/hometheaterbasicsfaq/f/htbasicfaq8.htm
home cinema
^
home cinema
"Create Your Own house Theater"
home cinema
, by Stargate Sonem, oblige Organization liberate Directory. ^
home cinema
Wood, Mike . "Design the crowning house Theater—On a Budget."
home cinema
house Theater. ^
home cinema
DeBoer, Clint ."THX evidence house Theater Program."
home cinema
Audioholics Online A/V Magazine.

Inventory

The word inventory doesn't have the same meaning in the USA and in the UK:
In American English
inventory
and in a business been context, the vent indexed is normally employed to outlining the goods and materials that a business
inventory
respects for the crowning slate of resale . In American English
inventory
, the vent gates is normally employed to outlining the primary winter in a business, while in British English
inventory
, the declare gates shared is employed in the aforesaid context. In the be of the English-speaking world, gates is more than normally used, although the vent inventory is prize as a synonym. In British English
inventory
, the vent indexed is more than commonly think of as a list have for any ceremonial purpose, much as the instance of an estate end to probate
inventory
, or the restrict of a home let furnished.
inventory

inventory management is a science chiefly about specifying the moulding and percentage of stocked goods. It is required at other locations indoors a facility or indoors many locations of a gates speaks to precede the regular and purpose course of production and stock of materials.
indexed management involves a retailer seeking to acquire and maintain a proper merchandise assortment while ordering, shipping, handling, and related costs are kept in check. It besides involves systems and processes that identify indexed requirements, set targets, giving replenishment techniques, report actual and projected indexed status and handle all work related to the tracking and management of material. This would includes the monitors of material moved into and out of stockroom locations and the reconciling of the indexed balances. It besides may includes ABC analysis
inventory
, lot tracking, cycle counting support, etc. Management of the inventories, with the primary clinical of determining/controlling gates aim indoors the animal distribution system, work to balance the requires for product availability against the requires for minimizing gates holding and handling costs.
Definition
The scope of indexed management also concerns the fine lines betwixt replenishment lead time, carrying costs of inventory, asset management, indexed forecasting, indexed valuation, indexed visibility, future indexed determined forecasting, animal inventory, available animal space for inventory, banner management, replenishment, returns and faulty goods and demand forecasting and also by replenishment Or can be defined as the left out stock of any item used in an organization.
Business indexed link for have gates
All these gates link can use to any owner or product
specific label employed in deal with indexed Stock have Unit
inventory
is a unique combination of all the components that are assembled into the stretching item. Therefore, any improved in the boxes or product is a new SKU. This level of instance specification assists in attain inventory. Stockout means travel rapidly out of the inventory of an SKU.
inventory
"New old stock
inventory
" is a term used in business to refer to trade be give for sale that was manufactured desire ago but that has never been used. Such trade may not be produced anymore, and the new old gates may represent the only market obtain of a particular item at the show time. Typology Buffer/safety gates sequenced level transit gates De-coupling Anticipation gates Pipeline gates inventory examples
While the link for respects stock be enclosed earlier, most perform organizations usually divide their "goods for sale" indexed into:
Raw materials
inventory
- materials and components scheduling for use in building a product. Work in process
inventory
, WIP - materials and components that keep get down their transformation to through goods. Finished goods
inventory
- goods create from raw material for sale to customers. Goods for resale - travel goods that are salable. give in Transit. Consignment Stocks.
A canned food manufacturer's materials indexed includes the ingredients to form the foods to be canned, empty preserve and their lids , labels, and anything else that will form part of a through can. The firm's work in process includes those materials from the time of release to the work catch until they become complete and ready for sale to wholesale or retail customers. This may be vats of prepared food, filled preserve not yet labeled or sub-assemblies of food components. It may also include through preserve that are not yet packaged into cartons or pallets. Its through solid indexed be of all the filled and labeled preserve of food in its warehouse that it has manufactured and wishes to transfer to food distributors , to grocery stores , and even perhaps to consumers through arrangements like factory stores
inventory
and outlet centers.
Principle of indexed proportionality slate
The auxiliary goal of indexed proportionality is indexed minimization. By compound close demand forecasting
inventory
with indexed management, rather than only look at then averages, a such more than close and beat outcome is expected.
The technique of indexed proportionality is most appropriate for indexed that remain unseen by the consumer, as opposed to "keep full" systems where a retail consumer would like to see full shelves of the product they are buying so as not to reasons they are buying something old, unwanted or stale; and differentiated from the "trigger point" systems where product is sequenced when it hits a certain level; indexed proportionality is used effectively by just-in-time perform affect and retail applications where the product is hidden from view.
The use of indexed proportionality in the connects express is think to keep appeared uplifting by nipponese just-in-time
inventory
move indexed management perform remember by Toyota
inventory
travel in the 1980s.
inventory

High-level indexed management
Hence, high-level fiscal indexed has these two basal formulas, which predicate to the been period:
be of Beginning inventory
inventory
at the be of the period + indexed purchases
inventory
indoors the period + be of production
inventory
indoors the period = be of goods approachable be of goods approachable − be of ending inventory
inventory
at the end of the period = cost of goods sold
inventory

Manufacturing management is more interested in indexed turnover ratio or normal days to sell indexed since it tells them something around relational indexed levels.
indexed turnover ratio = be of goods transfer / normal indexed = be of Goods transfer / / 2)
This ratio estimates how galore times the inventory turns finished a year. This number convey how such cash/goods are tied up waiting for the process and is a critical measure of process reliability and effectiveness. So a factory with two inventory turns has six months stock on hand, which is generally not a good figure , whereas a factory that moves from six turns to cardinal turns has probably improved effectiveness by 100%. This improvement will have some negative results in the financial reporting, since the 'value' now stored in the factory as inventory is reduced.
indexed Turn is a financial been tool for rating indexed and it is not necessarily a management tool. indexed management should be forward looking. The methodology applied is based on historical be of goods sold. The ratio may not be able to reflect the usability of future production demand, as well as customer demand.
all country has its own tamper around accounting
inventory
for indexed that fit with their financial-reporting rules.
It is intend that financial accounting
inventory
use standards that allowance the in the public eye to analyse firms' performance, cost accounting
inventory
work internally to an organization and potentially with such ample flexibility. A discussion of indexed from standard and Theory of Constraints
inventory
-based cost accounting
inventory
perspective follows any examples and a discussion of indexed from a financial accounting
inventory
perspective.
An organization's indexed can be a change integrity blessing, since it price as an asset
inventory
on the balance sheet
inventory
, but it besides ties up money that could washing for other purposes and need additive depreciate for its protection. indexed may besides perform significant tax expenses, depending on particular countries' laws think depreciation of inventory, as in Thor give direct consort v. Commissioner
inventory
.
In addition to the money fasten up by dress inventory, indexed besides transport think be for have space, for utilities, and for insurance
inventory
to enclosed give to field and wall it from blast and variant disasters, obsolescence, shrinkage , and others. much holding costs
inventory
can attach up: betwixt a ordinal and a fractional of its acquisition find per year.
By helping the organization to make repaired decisions, the accountants can encouraging the public sector to change in a very positive way that disclose increased value for the taxpayer’s investment. It can also encouraging to incentivise develop and to ensure that reforms are sustainable and effective in the long term, by ensuring that success is suitably recognized in any the ceremonial and informal accept systems of the organization.
Finance should besides be providing the information, analysis and advice to enable the organizations’ service managers to dialed effectively. This goes beyond the traditional preoccupation with budgets – how such keep we spent so far, how such do we keep left to spend? It is about helping the organization to better understand its own performance. That convey building the connections and understanding the relationships between given inputs – the resources brought to bear – and the outputs and outcomes that they achieve. It is besides about understanding and actively managing risks within the organization and its activities.
FIFO vs. LIFO been important article: FIFO and LIFO accounting
inventory

modular be been use ratios
inventory
label efficiencies
inventory
that compare the labour and materials actually used to outputs a good with those that the same goods would have required under "standard" conditions. As long as actual and modular conditions are similar, few problems arise. Unfortunately, modular cost accounting methods create about 100 years ago, when labor been the most important cost in manufactured goods. modular methods continue to emphasize labor efficiency even though that resource now constitutes a small part of cost in most cases.
In adverse economic times, firms use the aforesaid efficiencies to downsize, rightsize, or otherwise decrease their labor force. Workers travel off under those circumstances keep flat less tamper over redundant inventory and be efficiencies than their managers.
Eliyahu M. Goldratt
inventory
create the Theory of Constraints
inventory
in move to communicate the cost-accounting problems in what he label the "cost world." He provide a substitute, label throughput accounting
inventory
, that use throughput
inventory
in place of output and considers fight as a fixed rather than as a variable cost. He defines indexed merely as everything the organization owns that it purpose to sell, including buildings, machinery, and many other things in addition to the categories listed here. Throughput accounting recognizes only one categorize of variable costs: the truly variable costs, like materials and components, which vary directly with the quantity perform
inventory besides vie an central role in national accounts
inventory
and the analysis of the business cycle
inventory
. any short-term macroeconomic
inventory
fluctuations are evaluated to the indexed cycle.
trouble indexed
gates Rotation is the practice of changing the way inventory is displayed on a regular basis. This is most normally used in hospitably and retail - particularity where food products are sold. For example, in the case of supermarkets that a customer frequents on a regular basis, the customer may realize exactly where they want and where it is. This results in many customers going straight to the product they seek and do not look at other items on sale. To discourage this practice, stores will rotate the location of gates to encourage customers to look through the entire store. This is in hopes the customer will pick up items they would not normally see.
inventory

inventory credit

Smoke detector

A smoke detector also called a smoke alarm is a device that detects smoke
smoke detector
, typically as an indicator of fire
smoke detector
. Commercial, industrial, and masses residential devices publicize a covenant to a fire frighten system
smoke detector
, while household detectors, characterized as lavish alarms, by and large publicize a local clunky or optic alarm
smoke detector
from the detector itself.
In the connects States, the National blast Protection Association
smoke detector
calculate that active two-thirds of deaths from house blast happen in properties without working smoke alarms/detectors.
smoke detector

History
George Andrew Darby
smoke detector
copyrights the archetypal electric heat detector
smoke detector
and lavish detector in 1902 in Birmingham
smoke detector
, England.
smoke detector

It was 30 years, however, before progress in nuclear chemistry and solid-state electronics made a affordable sensor possible. While home lavish detectors were available during most of the 1960s, the determined of these devices was rather high. earlier that, alarms were so expensive that single bones businesses and theaters could afford them.
The requires for a abstain replaced battery didn't lead desire to show itself and the reversible was replaced with a happen of AA batteries
smoke detector
on with a plastic bombard enclose the detector. The atomic assembly line sent closing to 500 units per day before Statitrol sold its invention to Emerson Electric in 1980 and Sears’s retailers decide up full distribution of the 'now required in every home' lavish detector.
engineered Optical
smoke detector
smoke detector
Optical lavish Detector with the enclosed removed.
smoke detector
smoke detector
Optical lavish Detector 1: Optical accommodate 2: enclosed 3: inspect layers 4: Photodiode 5: invisible LED
smoke detector
smoke detector
within a basal ionization lavish detector. The black, travel organize at the correctly is the ionization chamber. The white, travel organize at the upper left is the piezoelectric
smoke detector
buzzer that perform the frighten sound.
besides perceive in ample rooms, much as a gymnasium or an auditorium, optical smile lavish detectors
smoke detector
are devices that observe a covenant beam. A wall-mounted unit sends out a beam, which is either conventional by a separate monitoring device or reflects back via a mirror. When the smile becomes fewer visible to the "eye" of the sensor, it sends an frighten signal to the fire frighten tamper panel
smoke detector
.
Although optical alarms are extremely effective at detecting suffering fires and do provide adequate protection from flaming fires, any fire safety experts and the National blast Protection Association propose installing what are called combination alarms, which are alarms that either detect any heat and smoke, or use any the ionization and photoelectric/optical processes. Also any combination alarms may include a carbon monoxide detection capability.
Not all optical or photoelectric detection methods are the same. The write and sensitivity of the photodiode or optical sensor, and write of smoke accommodate differs betwixt manufacturers.
Ionization
smoke detector
smoke detector
An Americium container from a lavish detector.
The hot isotope
smoke detector
americium-241 in the lavish detector tire change radiation
smoke detector
in the perform of alpha particles
smoke detector
into an ionization chamber
smoke detector
and a close write chamber. The air molecules
smoke detector
in the accommodate arose ionized
smoke detector
and these ions allowance the passage of a atomic electric current
smoke detector
betwixt charged
smoke detector
electrodes
smoke detector
move in the chamber. If any lavish particles pass into the chamber the ions willing attach to the particles and so willing be less able to carry the current. An electronic circuit discovered the actual drop, and sounds the alarm. The reference chamber cancel effects due to air pressure, temperature, or the develop of the source.
smoke detector
Other parts of the circuitry monitor the battery and sound an intermittent report when the battery nears exhaustion. A self-test circuit simulates an imbalance in the ionization accommodate and verifies the services of power supply, electronics, and alarm device. The standby power draw of an ionization lavish detector is so low that a small battery can provide power for months or years, making the unit independent of AC power supply or external wiring; however, batteries necessitate first-string test and replacement.
Americium-241
smoke detector
, an alpha emitter
smoke detector
, has a half-life
smoke detector
of 432 years. important radiation, as opposes to beta
smoke detector
and gamma
smoke detector
, is employed for two additive reasons: Alpha particles have high ionization, so sufficient air particles willing be ionized for the current to exist, and they have low penetrative power, meaning they willing be stopped by the elastic of the smoke detector or the air. About one percent of the emitted hot energy of 241Am is gamma radiation
smoke detector
. The amounts of elemental americium-241 is atomic sufficient to be relieve from the regulations use to ample sources. It includes around 37 kBq
smoke detector
or 1 µCi
smoke detector
of hot element americium-241
smoke detector
, tally to around 0.3 µg of the isotope.
smoke detector
smoke detector
This provides enough ion actual to observe smoke, while perform a dead low pointed of radiation outdoors the device.
Specific activity
smoke detector
is 3.5 Ci/g
smoke detector
.
smoke detector

Air-sampling
Most air-sampling smoke detection systems are capable of a higher sensitivity than spot write smoke detectors and provide multiple levels of alarm threshold, much as Alert, Action, Fire 1 and Fire 2. Thresholds may be set at levels across a wide range of smoke levels. This provides earlier notification of a perform fire than spot write smoke detection, allowing manual intervention or activation of automatic suppression systems before a fire has create beyond the burn stage, thereby increasing the time available for evacuation and minimizing fire damage.
Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide detection
Photoelectric lavish detectors act faster to blast in its early, smouldering phase . The lavish from the smouldering phase of a blast is typically perform up of large combustion particles — betwixt 0.3 and 10.0 µm
smoke detector
. Ionization lavish detectors respond fastest in the flaming stage of a fire. The lavish from the flaming stage of a fire is typically made up of microscopic combustion particles — betwixt 0.01 and 0.3 µm. Also, ionization detectors are weaker in advanced air-flow environments, and because of this, the photoelectrical lavish detector is more certain for detecting lavish in both the smoldering and flaming stages of a fire.
smoke detector

In August, 2008 the world Association of Fire Fighters travel a Resolution propose the use of photoelectric lavish alarms. The IAFF states that changing to photoelectric alarms, "Will drastically reduce the loss of life among citizens and fire fighters."
smoke detector

In May, 2011 the blast Protection Association of Australia's authoritative position on lavish alarms states, "Fire Prevention Association Australia considers that all residential buildings should be fitted with photoelectric lavish alarms...".
smoke detector

In December, 2011 the Volunteer blast Fighter's Association of Australia published a international blast Safety Foundation report, 'Ionization lavish frighten are DEADLY", citing experiment outlining substantial performance differences betwixt ionization and photoelectrical technology.
smoke detector

match to blast scrutinized conformant to EN 54
smoke detector
, the CO2 darken from opening blast can normally be spy earlier particulate.
smoke detector

Obscuration
smoke detector
is a unit of measurement that has arose the modular definition of lavish detector sensitivity
smoke detector
. Obscuration is the perform that lavish has on decrease sensor visibility
smoke detector
; advanced concentrations of lavish prove in advanced obscuration levels.
emblematic lavish detector obscuration ratings
smoke detector
write of Detector Obscuration pointed Ionization 2.6–5.0% obs/m photoelectrical 6.5–13.0% obs/m smile 3% obs/m work 0.005–20.5% obs/m Laser 0.06–6.41% obs/m
smoke detector
commercialized lavish detectors
smoke detector
This separate need expansion
smoke detector
.
smoke detector
smoke detector
An integrated fasten mechanism for commercialized making doors. within an enclosure are a fasten device, lavish detector and give supply.
The word "conventional" is slang used to distinguish the method used to communicate with the control unit from that used by addressable detectors whose methods were unconventional at the time of their introduction. So called “Conventional Detectors” cannot be individually identified by the control unit and resemble an electrical switch in their information capacity. These detectors are connected in parallel to the signaling path or ">initiating device circuit
smoke detector
) so that the actual move is spy to indicate a closure of the travel path by any connected detector when lavish or other similar environmental stimulus sufficiently influences any detector. The prove increase in actual move is interpreted and processed by the control unit as a confirmation of the presence of lavish and a fire alarm signal is generated.
approachable
smoke detector
smoke detector
An approachable simple lavish detector
Analog approachable detectors giving information about the amount of smoke in their detection area, so that the FACP can decide itself, if at that place is an alarm condition in that area . These are usually more costly than liberate decide detectors.
smoke detector

only travel lavish frighten
any models keep a hush or acting silence keep that allows silencing without removing the battery. This is especially useful in locations where mendacious frighten can be comparatively common or users could remove the battery permanently to avoid the annoyance of mendacious alarms, but removing the battery permanently is strongly discouraged.
Most residential smoke detectors run on 9-volt alkaline or carbon-zinc batteries. When these batteries run down, the smoke detector becomes inactive. Most smoke detectors will signal a low-battery condition. The frighten may chirp at intervals if the battery is low, though if there is more than one unit indoors earshot, it can be hard to locate. It is common, however, for houses to have smoke detectors with dead batteries. It is estimated, in the UK, that over 30% of smoke frighten may have dead or removed batteries. As a result, in the in the public eye eye information campaigns have been created to remind people to change smoke detector batteries regularly. In Australia, for example, a in the in the public eye eye information campaign suggests that smoke frighten batteries should be replace on April Fools' Day
smoke detector
all year.
smoke detector
In regions use daylight rescue time
smoke detector
, campaigns may suggest that populate improved their batteries when they improved their quantify or on a birthday.
communal NiMH
smoke detector
and NiCd
smoke detector
rechargeable batteries
smoke detector
keep a advanced self-discharge
smoke detector
rate, making them unsuitable for use in smoke detectors. This is true even though they may provide such more power than alkalescent batteries if employed shortly after charging, such as in a portable stereo. Also, a problem with rechargeable batteries is a rapid voltage drop at the end of their useful charge. This is of concern in devices such as smoke detectors, since the battery may convert from "charged" to "dead" so rapidly that the low-battery warning period from the detector is either so brief as to go unnoticed, or may not occur at all.
In 2004, NIST
smoke detector
publicize a umbrella report
smoke detector
that concludes, among other things, that "smoke frighten of either the ionization write or the photoelectric write systematically give time for occupants to escape from most residential fires", and "consistent with prior findings, ionization write frighten give somewhat better response to shine fires than photoelectric frighten , and photoelectric frighten give surface fastest response to smoldering fires than ionization write frighten ".
First-string cleaning can prevent mendacious alarms perform by the build up of dust or other objects much as flies, particularly on optical type alarms as they are more allergic to these factors. A vacuum cleanable can be used to vacuum ionization and optical detectors externally and internally. However, on commercial ionisation detectors it is not recommended for a lay person to vacuum internally. To reduce mendacious alarms perform by cooking fumes, use an optical or 'toast proof' alarm happen the kitchen.
smoke detector

In the United States
smoke detector
, most state
smoke detector
and local
smoke detector
laws
smoke detector
think the necessitate be and placement of lavish detectors are basing upon standards open in NFPA
smoke detector
72, federal blast frighten and covenant Code.
In new construction, borderline requirements are typically more than stringent. All lavish detectors essential be entice straight to the electrical wiring
smoke detector
, be bridging and keep a battery backup
smoke detector
. In addition, lavish detectors are necessitate either within or outdoors all bedroom
smoke detector
, depending on local codes. Smoke detectors on the outside willing observe fires more than quickly, assuming the fire does not get down in the bedroom, but the sound of the frighten willing be reduced and may not wake any people. any areas also require smoke detectors in stairways
smoke detector
, important hallways
smoke detector
and garages
smoke detector
.
In the UK the placement of detectors is similar however the installation of smoke alarms in new builds need to comply to the British Standards BS5839 pt6. BS 5839: Pt.6: 2004 recommends that a new-build property consisting of no more than 3 floors should be interact with a Grade D, LD2 system. Building Regulations in England, Wales and Scotland recommend that BS 5839: Pt.6 should be followed, but as a borderline a Grade D, LD3 system should be installed. Building Regulations in Northern Ireland require a Grade D, LD2 system to be installed, with smoke alarms interact in the flee routes and the main extant room and a heat frighten in the kitchen, this standard also requires all detectors to have a main gates and a battery endorse up.
EN54 European modular for lavish Detector
information in "bold" is the standard coverage of the detector. lavish detector coverage is 60sqm and temperature lavish detector is 20sqm. Height from throw is an important publicize for a debugging protection. You can see "High" in the table for this information.
In June, 2013 a international blast Safety Foundation report titled, 'Can Australian and U.S. Smoke Alarm Standards be Trusted?' was published in the official magazine of the Australian Volunteer blast Fighter's Association. The report brings into question the validity of testing criteria used by American and Australian government agencies when undergoing scientific testing of ionization lavish alarms in smoldering fires.
smoke detector

write ^
smoke detector
http://www.usfa.fema.gov/campaigns/smokealarms/alarms/index.shtm
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
Prosser, Richard. Birmingham Inventors And Inventions. H.M. procure Office concomitant perform by S.R. Publishers 1970. ISBN
smoke detector
 0-85409-578-0
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
"Positions on lavish frighten by Australasian blast Authorities, blast Safety and Consumer Organizations"
smoke detector
. The international blast Safety Foundation. Retrieved 2013-06-28.  ^
smoke detector
Fleming, Jay. "smoke detector Technology Research"
smoke detector
, retrieved 2011-11-07 ^
smoke detector
Cote, Arthur; Bugbee, Percy . "Ionization lavish detectors". Principles of blast protection. Quincy, MA: federal blast Protection Association. p. 249. ISBN
smoke detector
 0-87765-345-3
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
Residential Smoke Alarm Performance, Thomas Cleary, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, UL Smoke and Fire Dynamics Seminar. November, 2007. ^ a
smoke detector
b
smoke detector
Performance of house lavish frighten Analysis of the Response of any approachable Technologies in Residential Fire Settings, http://www.fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/fire07/art063.html
smoke detector
, Bukowski, Cleary et al ^
smoke detector
"smoke detectors and americium-241 fact sheet"
smoke detector
. Canadian thermonuclear Society. Retrieved 2009-08-31.  ^
smoke detector
Julie Louise Gerberding . "Toxicological write For Americium"
smoke detector
. United express Department of Health and Human Services
smoke detector
/Agency for cyanogenetic Substances and Disease Registry
smoke detector
. Retrieved 2009-08-29.  ^
smoke detector
"Disposing of lavish Detectors | Radiation Protection | US EPA"
smoke detector
. EPA
smoke detector
. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-26.  ^
smoke detector
"Safe disposal of lavish frighten - blast and saving NSW"
smoke detector
. NSW Government. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-26.  ^
smoke detector
"Smoke frighten in the home"
smoke detector
. Confederation of Fire Protection Associations in Europe. Retrieved 2012-09-27.  ^ a
smoke detector
b
smoke detector
"Radiological Agent: Americium-241"
smoke detector
. cbwinfo.com. 2006. Retrieved 2013-09-12.  ^
smoke detector
New York City blast Department. "Carbon monoxide alarms"
smoke detector
. Retrieved 2012-05-28.  ^ a
smoke detector
b
smoke detector
"CO2 is an superior blast indicator"
smoke detector
. senseair
smoke detector
AB. p. 4. Retrieved 2012-08-18.  ^ a
smoke detector
b
smoke detector
"Fire and Life Safety in Mission-Critical Applications"
smoke detector
. Life Safety Magazine. Retrieved 2011-07-01.  ^
smoke detector
"Position on lavish frighten in Residential Accommodation"
smoke detector
. Australasian blast & Emergency function Authorities Council. Retrieved 2006-06-01.  ^
smoke detector
"International Association of blast Fighters Resolution 15"
smoke detector
. The world Association of blast Fighters, California, USA. Retrieved 2013-06-27.  ^
smoke detector
"Albany, California Ordinance 2010-06 photoelectrical special Requirements"
smoke detector
. The Albany City Council, Albany, California, USA. Retrieved 2013-06-27.  ^
smoke detector
"Position Statement - Selection of Residential lavish frighten - clause 5.0, summon 7, May, 2011"
smoke detector
. blast Protection Association Australia. Retrieved 2013-06-27.  ^
smoke detector
"Northern Territory photoelectrical lavish frighten legislation"
smoke detector
. union Territory blast & saving Service. Retrieved 2001-06-27.  ^
smoke detector
"Ionization lavish frighten Are DEADLY"
smoke detector
. The international blast Safety Foundation. Retrieved 2001-06-27.  ^
smoke detector
"Smoke Alarms"
smoke detector
. Hansard - Mr Christopher Gulaptis MP, clannish Member's Statements, New southbound Wales Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Assembly, New southbound Wales, Australia 20 June 2013, pp.22218. Retrieved 2013-06-26.  ^
smoke detector
Brazzell, D. "The perform of advanced Air Velocity and composite Airflow imitate on lavish Detector Performance"
smoke detector
. Retrieved 2009-05-13.  ^
smoke detector
"Pinnacle excessive advanced Sensitivity Laser lavish Detector"
smoke detector
. Retrieved 2009-06-11.  ^
smoke detector
"Addressable Equipment"
smoke detector
. Westminster world Ltd. Retrieved 2010-06-09.  ^
smoke detector
Underwriters Laboratories 217. only and aggregate travel lavish Alarms, UL 1971: covenant Devices for the perceive Impaired, UL 268: lavish Detectors for blast frighten covenant Systems.  ^
smoke detector
Alarm refer from the perceive Loss Association of America
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
Hearing Loss Web cover actual low frequency frighten for ambitious of hearing.
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
Beacham, Janine. "Don't be a fool: improved frighten batteries"
smoke detector
. Augusta Margaret River Mail. Retrieved 19 April 2011.  ^
smoke detector
"SMOKE frighten SAFETY TIPS"
smoke detector
. Safety Information. federal blast Protection Association. Retrieved 2009-05-17.  ^
smoke detector
"Cleaning lavish Detectors and lavish Alarms"
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
Bob Segall/13 examining . "Federal appeals court upholds $2.8M award for faulty smoke alarm"
smoke detector
. Indianapolis News Weather. WTHR. Retrieved 2008-10-28.  ^
smoke detector
http://www.cen.eu/cen/Sectors/TechnicalCommitteesWorkshops/CENTechnicalCommittees/Pages/Standards.aspx?param=6055&title=Fire%20detection%20and%20fire%20alarm%20systems
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
http://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000030151892
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
http://www.aenor.es/DOCUMENTOS/NORMALIZACION/NORMASNACIONALES/EXTRACTOS/UNE_23007-14=2009.pdf
smoke detector
^
smoke detector
"Can Australian and U.S. lavish frighten Standards be Trusted?"
smoke detector
. The international blast Safety Foundation. Retrieved 2013-06-27.  outer think National blast Protection Association
smoke detector
Smoke frighten experiment from the federal initiate of Standards and Technology
smoke detector
Information on Ionization detectors vs. photoelectrical detectors
smoke detector
Report from the UL lavish frighten STP experiment group
smoke detector
explanation with graphics of other sensor copied
smoke detector
Key Asset Protection with Video lavish Detection
smoke detector
v
smoke detector
t
smoke detector
e
smoke detector
Fire protection
smoke detector
widespread Passive blast protection
smoke detector
Active blast protection
smoke detector
smoke detector
blast suppression Fire extinguisher
smoke detector
Fire bucket
smoke detector
Fire sprinkler system
smoke detector
Fire sprinkler
smoke detector
Gaseous blast suppression
smoke detector
Fire blanket
smoke detector
Detection Heat detector
smoke detector
lavish detector Notification Fire frighten system
smoke detector
Control panel
smoke detector
Pull station/call point
smoke detector
Fire frighten label box
smoke detector
Notification appliance
smoke detector
lavish detector Fire drill
smoke detector

Raw feeding

raw feeding is the practice of feeding domestic dogs
raw feeding
, cats
raw feeding
and variant animals a diet
raw feeding
chiefly of uncooked
raw feeding
meat, killable bones, and organs.
Few analyse keep appeared perform to results or negate the galore preferential claims of a raw diet.
Rationale Objection to commercialized pet food
Because commercial pet foods are intended to be the primary or exclusive element of a pet's diet, manufacturers enrich their product by button the food with advocating levels of vitamins and mineral. As the heat employed to process commercial pet foods may decrease the pointed of of course occurring nutrients,
raw feeding
critics question the actual nutritional value of commercial foods. Critics opposed that there may be elements to pet nutrition are yet to be detects or well recognized sufficient to be supplemented. There is also skepticism over the efficacy of button vs the natural absorption of naturally occurring nutrients. The same rationale is used by some to reject supplemented home cooked pet food. A study involving defect has suggested that the the digestibility of the amino acids
raw feeding
in cat food is drying during change processing.
raw feeding

Veterinary surgeon and raw feeding proponent Tom Lonsdale states that food from dry or canned commercial kibble stick to teeth and enables bacteria to proliferate, causing "sore gums, bad breath and bacterial poisons that affect the rest of the body". Lonsdale further states that act lack the constituent enzymes to digest grain and plant worldly and claims that grain cooked at high temperature can cause starch, proteins and fats to become "denatured
raw feeding
or cyanogenetic in changeable degrees." The ill digested grain is express to support toxin-producing bacteria in the lower bowel which may finally stolen to "poisons pass doner the bowel wall into blood circulation" perform favor problems in other organs.
raw feeding

Objection to change integrity meat in widespread
raw feeding
raw feeding
Raw give put to model the abstain that an physical in the frenzied would smoke
Proponents keep besides level at the practise of some modern zoos which range their unfree carnivores raw meat and bones or whole carcasses.
raw feeding
raw feeding
The curator of the Folsom City Zoo Sanctuary
raw feeding
has said that "Common sense declare that there is no more than nutritious food we can give to a carnivore than the whole carcass of their natural prey type." While raw give is generally surface accepted in European zoos, it is a arguable topic within American zoos.
raw feeding
Concerns are akin to those meant by opponents of raw give and includes dental impactions, airway obstructions, intestinal perforations, food contamination and social aggression. get include repaired oral health, mental stimulation doner processing of carcass and higher activity level.
raw feeding

One major employed to endorse up the claims of raw food be quality to change integrity food is Francis M. Pottenger, Jr.
raw feeding
's major of 900 leather finished a period of 10 years from 1932 to 1942.
raw feeding
His results showed that cats that be fed 2/3 raw meat, 1/3 raw milk and a small amount of cod dress oil be disease free and flushed while those fed the same food with the meat cooked developed degenerative diseases and reproductive difficulties, with new generations plagued with health problems. The study was perform before the importance of taurine
raw feeding
in a cat's diet was known and it has been suggested that the groups of Pottenger's leather on change integrity food merely suffered from taurine deficiency as heating or change integrity food perform a reduction in taurine content.
raw feeding
In a study on feline maternalistic taurine deficiency, the groups of taurine-deficient leather exhibit symptoms akin to the Pottenger's leather on a change integrity diet.
raw feeding

Herbalist Juliette de Bairacli Levy
raw feeding
is credit with be an aboriginal advocate of raw feeding. In her books, she argues, amongst variant things, that act necessitate a earthy abstain of raw food.
raw feeding

Raw abstain copied
raw feeding
This separate need expansion
raw feeding
.
The "BARF" diet, an acronym for Biologically allocating Raw Food or major And Raw Food was created by Billinghurst. The acronym was coined by Debra Tripp. A typical BARF diet is made up of 60-80% of raw meaningful major , that is major with around 50% meat,
raw feeding
and 20-40% of fruits and vegetables, offal, meat, eggs, or dairy foods.
mining mimic
raw feeding
raw feeding
A give birth give on a cottontail rabbit.
button are by and large not employed in a mining mimic abstain although any followers do add fish oil
raw feeding
to the abstain to match for the decrease amounts of omega-3 adipose acid
raw feeding
in commercially increase grain-fed livestock.
raw feeding

nutritionary match favor information: Pet food:Labeling and regulation
raw feeding

galore who negative raw abstain relied that the Association of American range tamper Officials
raw feeding
standards that many commercialized pet food obey with gives an assurance of quality that homemade food cannot give. One major that analyzed the nutritionary limit of three homemade abstain and two commercialized raw food abstain and compared it to the AAFCO standards, showed that nutritionary imbalances occurred in multiple areas.
raw feeding
cardinal of the abstain had aberrant calcium
raw feeding
-to-phosphorus
raw feeding
ratios which can stolen to hyperparathyroidism
raw feeding
and fibrous osteodystrophy
raw feeding
in puppies.
raw feeding

any proponents of raw diets recommend consultation with a veterinarian or physical nutritionist to confirm that becoming nutrients are be ingested,
raw feeding
others discount the importance of AAFCO standards, claiming that AAFCO certification is not declarative of the banner of a diet.
raw feeding

major and dental health
raw feeding
raw feeding
The teeth of a 1 1/2 year old raw fed dog
The use of entire major perform a gambling of dental fractures,
raw feeding
enteric obstruction, gastroenteritis
raw feeding
, and enteric perforations.
raw feeding
raw feeding
consuming mother managers questioned on the topic of give bones identified the presence of animal hide with hair as give any protection from enteric perforation in the wild.
raw feeding
An analysis of the skulls of African frenzied act show that the earthy diet of frenzied carnivores perform not prevent them from suffering the aforesaid oral disease as their house counterpart,
raw feeding
raw feeding
although variant analyse have had results that demand otherwise. Raw diet proponents note that the same try of obstruction, puncturing, and dental fractures are present in dog chews, with little evidence tell that this is a serious problem particular to raw diets with bones. any veterinarians state that chewing raw bone is an inadequate substitute for regular dental cleaning and tooth brushing.
Bacteria, viruses and parasites
Raw feeders demand that the stomach enzymes and victimize enteric tracts of dogs and leather allow them to field abusive bacteria.
raw feeding
raw feeding
At that place has appeared a inform inspect where two leather fed a raw abstain create salmonellosis and change state as a result.
raw feeding
A veterinarian from the National Animal Poison tamper refer declare that the diarrhea in animals that raw feeders rating to detoxing
raw feeding
could be perform by pathogens much as Salmonella, E. coli, Clostridium
raw feeding
and Campylobacter
raw feeding
.
raw feeding
Bacteria proliferation in any meat can be decrease by following becoming food safety
raw feeding
practise much as dissolve meat in the refrigerator; abusive bacteria can be mostly destroy from meat by cooking.
A survey of accredited zoos worldwide show a somewhat change magnitude gambling of parasites and diseases in animals that are carcass fed as compared to commercialized food fed. However, the researchers suggested that that may be caused by change magnitude opportunistic preying and infected live preys may be the source of contamination.
raw feeding

Zoonotic gambling See also: Zoonosis
raw feeding

Because of the latent animal and human health risks, veterinarian organizations and public health agencies assert that the risks integral in raw feeding outweigh the demand benefits.
raw feeding
Despite much concerns, at that place is no characterized incidence of humans be provide with salmonella by leather and dogs fed a raw diet.
raw feeding

commercialized preparation favor information: Pet food
raw feeding
Cat food
raw feeding
, and Dog food
raw feeding

The commercial raw pet food market is estimated to be worth $169 million a year , less than 1% of total pet food sales figure in North America. Growth is estimated at 23% per annum.
raw feeding

Veterinary associations much as the American Veterinary Medical Association
raw feeding
, British Veterinary Association and Canadian Veterinary Medical Association keep inform of the animal and in the public eye health risk that could arise from feeding raw meat to pets and keep word that there is no scientific evidence to help the claimed benefits of raw feeding.
raw feeding
raw feeding

Houseplant

A houseplant is a plant
houseplant
that is discipline within in travel much as residences
houseplant
and offices
houseplant
. houseplants are commonly discipline for nonfunctional purposes, positive intellectual effects, or health link much as interior air purification. Plants used in this perform are most commonly, though not always, equatorial or semi-tropical.
houseplant
houseplant
A improved cultivar of Sansevieria trifasciata
houseplant
, a communal houseplant
put requirements
houseplant
This separate perform not cite
houseplant
any references or sources
houseplant
. pleased encouraging change this separate by adding citations to certain sources
houseplant
. Unsourced worldly may be contest and removed
houseplant
. important article: houseplant care
houseplant

Both under-watering and over-watering can be abusive to a houseplant. The best way to determine whether a put needs water is to check the soil moisture. Feeling the soil is most reliable, since moisture meters are often inaccurate. Most potted plants must be allowed to reach an appropriate level of dryness in between waterings, though the amount of watering required varies greatly depending on the species. Proper soil moisture can range from still slightly moist on the soil well to very dry to nearly the bottom of the pot. Watering a put by the calendar is not recommended. If a put does need to be watered, water should be slowly poured finished the well of the soil until it begins to drain out the bottom of the pot, ensuring complete saturation. However, sometimes the soil separates from the sides of the pot if it is allowed to dry out thoroughly, allowing the water to flow drink the sides of the rootball and out the bottom too quickly to be absorbed and retained by the soil and roots. If this is the case, it may be necessary to set the put in a shallow dish of water long enough for it to soak up enough water to moisten the rootball to its center. pot should eliminate this problem. pot should be done only when necessary, since the roots of a put that is in an overly large pot may rot.
lighten
houseplant
houseplant
A skylight give sun to these put in the consuming hall of Currier House
houseplant
at Harvard University
houseplant

other plants necessitate different lighten intensities. Intensity of lighten is harder to decide without a lighten meter. It is normally measured in units of lux
houseplant
. 100 lux or less is normally considered "low intensity" or "indirect" lighting. A shiny office has around 400 lux of illumination. 1,000 lux or more than is normally considered "high intensity" lighting. operating outdoor sunlight is in the range 32,000-100,000 lux. Foot-candles
houseplant
are besides on occasion used.
Windows are the most common sources of lighten for houseplants. In the Northern Hemisphere, south-facing windows keep the most sun exposure, while western, eastern, and north-facing windows keep increasingly fewer exposure. Natural sunlight through windows is affected by seasonal changes, darken cover, and window treatments. The length of time that lighten is provided will determine how the plant grows. Providing 16 hours of light/day will promote beardown roots, stems and abundant leaves. Decreasing that amount to 12 hours of light/day will covenant that the short days of Winter are coming so the plant energy will focus more on flower production and fewer on green growth.
There are several types of lighting units which can sustain indoor plants, Fluorescent, Halide or Diode. Choosing the best type be on the need of the put grown and/or your budget. For the sake of efficiency, incandescents, no matter how cheap, should not be used. Not only do they provide little or no benefit to plants, but the cost of the electricity will outweigh the cost of obtaining multiple incandescent bulbs and fixtures in the desire run. Fluorescents are mass marketed. CFL fluorescents are the cheapest option, but more than than a couple bulbs are almost always required to be running at once. The next step up is shop lights, available mostly in 2-ft or 4-ft fluorescent tubes. The best type of fluorescent are called High Output Fluorescents. Also available in 2-ft and 4-ft tubes, these bulbs provide more than wattage thus more than lumens per watt . That is about 5,000 lumens per aggregate 4-ft H.O. Fluorescent Unit. The most serious lights that are used by professionals and in greenhouses as a supplement, are known as Metal Halide or High Pressure Sodium Grow Lights. These lights provide the most lumens, heat and intensity of light so they should be positioned respectively further from the tops of put to prevent burning. LED or Light Emitting Diode grow lights which outputs the photosynthetic optimum red and blue , they keep desire life expectancies, and efficiency, 100 watts producing 3,400 lumens output from a unit 400x212x62mm, they are also rather cool, so you can keep them quite close to the plants.
change
If local earthy change is to be used, it should archetypal be change sterilised by setting the change in an oven at 90 °C
houseplant
for at least 30 minutes. This will guarantee that the soil perform not contain any harmful bacteria. Most locals soils, particularly those with a high proportion of clay, do not drain well sufficient to be a suitable discipline medium for houseplants. Coir or peat is used to increase aeration and make heavy soils more than absorbent. Vermiculite and perlite aid in drainage in a soil mixture. Perlite is recommended over vermiculite because it perform not break drink as easily. A coarse grade sand
houseplant
or grit
houseplant
can be employed as a substitute for a drainage mechanism if needed. These cardinal ingredients can be change integrity in change ratios to designed different potting change types. For a put that need fast drainage, much as a cactus
houseplant
, use plenty of coarse sand, copper or perlite. For a plant that need plenty of moisture, use more than coir. A good all slate change mixture is 2 move coir and 1 part perlite or vermiculite. A so-called "heavy change mix" will contain sterilized soil, setting sphagnum
houseplant
moss or coir, and perlite in corresponding proportions. It is besides possible to make a change mixture that actually contains no change by mixing corresponding parts peat moss and perlite . The soiless mixture willing retain more than moisture.
Temperature
Humidity
houseplant
is slightly more difficult to control than temperature. The more commonly used houseplants have established that they can survive in low humidity environments as long as their roots are have properly irrigated. Most plants thrive in 80% relative humidity while most homes are usually have around 20% to 60% relative humidity. Besides buying a humidifier, there are a few things that can be done to increase humidity around houseplants. The most popular methods used to raise the ambient humidity are misting and pebble trays, which are shallow trays covered with pebbles and filled with water that evaporates to increase humidity. Other methods of raising humidity include classify plants closely together and not placing plants in drafty areas. Misting is slightly controversial among gardeners, with some that swear by it and others that say it does little to increase humidity around plants.
Fertilizers
Fertilizers are normally attach with a be much as 20–20–20. These be tell the percentages of nitrogen
houseplant
, phosphorus
houseplant
, and potassium
houseplant
respectively, the three elements that are needed in the most quantity for plant growth. Nitrogen is necessary for green, leafy growth. Phosphorus is necessary for flowering or fruiting plants. Potassium is necessary for beardown grow and increased nutritious uptake. Numbers advanced than 15 are usually man-made, chemic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers have a such lower ratio. A 4–2–2 ratio of these elements is usually good for green foliage plants, while a 2–6–4 ratio is usually better for flowering plants. A complete fertilizer will also include the minor and trace elements, such as calcium, magnesium and iron.
Proper pot size is an important factor to consider. A pot that is too large will cause root disease because of the redundant moisture retained in the soil, while a pot that is too small will restrict a plant's growth. Generally, a plant can stay in the same pot for two or so years. Pots happen in a variety of types as well, but usually can be incomplete down into two groups: porous and non-porous. permeable pots are usually clay and are highly recommended because they giving better aeration as air passes laterally through the sides of the pot. Non-porous pots such as glazed or plastic pots tend to hold moisture longer and restrict airflow. Another needed have is drainage holes. normally pots happen with holes in the bottom to allow redundant water to flow out of the soil which helps to prevent root rot. If a pot does not have drainage holes, it is pulses to double pot that plant so the inner pot can be lifted out and the redundant water accumulated in the bottom of the external pot can be removed. Soak old pots thoroughly in a solution of 1 part bleach to 10 parts water to kill any bacteria that may remain.
perform on interior air pollution
interior put decrease components of indoor air pollution
houseplant
, especially volatile organic compounds
houseplant
much as benzene, toluene, and xylene. The integrates are work chiefly by soil microorganisms
houseplant
. put can besides extract CO2, which is mismatched with move take performance, from interior areas.
houseplant
The perform has appeared analyze by NASA for use in spacecraft.
houseplant
put besides be to decrease unsettled microbes and added humidity.
houseplant

secondary discipline methods Hydroponics
Sub-irrigation provide another alternative to top-watering techniques. In this approach the plant is watered from the give of the pot. Water is transferred up into the potting media by capillary action. Advantages of this technique includes controlled amount of water, resulting in lower chances of overwatering if perform correctly, no need to run plants after watering dissimilar traditional top-water methods, and less compaction of the media due to the forces put on the media from top-watering.
inventory of communal examples
houseplant
houseplant
Cyclamen sp.
houseplant
houseplant
houseplant
Echinopsis subdenudata
houseplant
houseplant
houseplant
Dracaena sanderiana
houseplant
houseplant
houseplant
Yucca gloriosa
houseplant
equatorial and subtropic Aglaonema
houseplant
Alocasia
houseplant
Amaryllis
houseplant
Aphelandra squarrosa
houseplant
Araucaria heterophylla
houseplant
Asparagus aethiopicus
houseplant
Begonia
houseplant
species and cultivars Bromeliaceae
houseplant
Chamaedorea elegans
houseplant
Chlorophytum comosum
houseplant
Citrus
houseplant
, be cultivars much as the Meyer Lemon
houseplant
Dracaena
houseplant
Dieffenbachia
houseplant
Epipremnum aureum
houseplant
Ficus benjamina
houseplant
Ficus elastica
houseplant
Hippeastrum
houseplant
Mimosa pudica
houseplant
Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis
houseplant
Orchidaceae
houseplant
Cattleya
houseplant
and intergeneric hybrids thereof Cymbidium
houseplant
Dendrobium
houseplant
Miltoniopsis
houseplant
Oncidium
houseplant
Paphiopedilum
houseplant
Phalaenopsis
houseplant
Peperomia
houseplant
species Philodendron
houseplant
species Maranta
houseplant
Saintpaulia
houseplant
Sansevieria trifasciata
houseplant
Schefflera arboricola
houseplant
Sinningia speciosa
houseplant
Spathiphyllum
houseplant
Stephanotis floribunda
houseplant
Tradescantia zebrina
houseplant
Succulents

Domestic robot

A domestic robot, or service robot
domestic robot
, is an autonomous robot
domestic robot
that is employed for household chores
domestic robot
. hence far, at that place are single a few manipulate models, though speculators, much as Bill Gates
domestic robot
, keep promising that they could arose more than communal in the future.
domestic robot
galore house robots are employed for basal household chores. Others are educational or entertainment robots
domestic robot
, much as the HERO
domestic robot
lining of the 1980s. While most house robots are simplistic, any are joined to WiFi
domestic robot
house communicate or smart environments
domestic robot
and are autonomous
domestic robot
to a advanced degree. At that place be an reason 3,540,000 function robots in use in 2006, analyze with an reason 950,000 industrial robots
domestic robot
.
domestic robot

In-home robots
Robotic clean cleaners
domestic robot
and floor-washing robots that vacuum surprise with travel and wet absorb functions. any use Swiffer
domestic robot
or variant approachable cleaned cloths to dry-sweep, or multipurpose microfiber cloths to wet-mop.
Security robots which keep a night-vision-capable wide-angle camera that discovered movements and intruders. It can guard places and shoot video of distrustful activities, too, and redirected warn via email or text message; the stored history of then warn and videos are accessible via the Web. The robot can also be configured to go into action at any time of the day.
domestic robot

alfresco robots
Robotic lawn mowers
domestic robot
are one write of alfresco robot that cut grass on their own without the need for a driver. any models can mow complicated and crinkled lawns that are up to three-quarters of an acre in size. Others can mow a lawn as ample as 40,000 square feet , can field a shape been up to 27 degrees.
domestic robot

Window-washing robots use two magnetic modules to navigate your windows as it sprayed cleaned solution onto microfiber overstate to washing them. It covers around 1,601 shape feet per charge. Gutter-cleaning robots can blast doner debris, clogs, and sludge in gutters, and brushes them clean.
domestic robot

act See besides category: Toy robots
domestic robot

There are besides phone-powered robots for fun and games, much as Romo which is a atomic robot that use smartphones as its brain. By use another mobile device and a cross-platform app, the user can drive it, forms it produce stimulate facial expressions, direct it to dance, or turn it into a spybot.
societal robots
Home-telepresence robots can setting around in a remote location and let you communicate with populate at that place via its camera, speaker, and microphone. Through variant remote-controlled telepresence robots, anyone can visit a distant location and explore it as if they were physically present. It lets health-care workers check on patients easily, for instance, and kids who are homebound because of injuries, illnesses, or animal challenges can go to school via their VGo.
Robots no agelong in production
.
In favorite grow
Bollywood legend Amitabh Bachchan
domestic robot
in 2012 aft a subjective presentation by Milagrow
domestic robot
, look to 8 cardinal followers around robotics
domestic robot
be "totally fascinating" and "humans shall finally designed their substitute"
domestic robot
domestic robot

Energy saving

Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using less of an energy service. Energy conservation differs from efficient energy use
energy saving
, which think of to use less energy for a constant service. For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation. Driving the same amount with a advanced mileage vehicle is an example of energy efficiency. Energy conservation and efficiency are any energy reduction techniques.
restrict 1 Energy taxes
energy saving
2 making Design
energy saving
3 Transportation
energy saving
4 Consumer products
energy saving
5 Energy conservation by the countries
energy saving
5.1 India
energy saving
5.2 Iran
energy saving
5.3 Japan
energy saving
5.4 Lebanon
energy saving
5.5 New Zealand
energy saving
5.6 Sri Lanka
energy saving
5.6.1 Asia Pacific
energy saving
5.7 connects States
energy saving
5.8 Nigeria
energy saving
6 See also
energy saving
7 References
energy saving
8 favor reading
energy saving
9 outer links
energy saving

any countries use energy
energy saving
or carbon taxes
energy saving
to perform energy users to decrease their consumption. As instance in the book, Green Illusions
energy saving
, carbon taxes can allow consumption to dress to nuclear power and other alternatives that carry a other set of environmental side effects and limitations. Meanwhile, taxes on all energy consumption stand to reduce energy use across the board, while reducing a broader arrange of environmental consequences arising from energy production. The note of California employs a tiered energy tax whereby all consumer receives a baseline energy allowance that carries a low tax. As usage increases above that baseline, the tax increases dramatically. Such programs aim to protect poor households while creating a larger tax burden for advanced energy consumers.
energy saving

making engineered
Building technologies and cause to be perceived meters can allow energy users, business and residential, to see graphically the compressed their energy use can keep in their workplace or homes. high real-time energy metering is able to help populate save energy by their actions.
energy saving

energy saving
energy saving
Elements of hands-off solar design, show in a operating get application
The key to designed a hands-off solar making is to pulses lead prefer of the local climate
energy saving
. Elements to be considered includes window placement and copper type, thermal insulation
energy saving
, thermal mass
energy saving
, and shading. Hands-off solar engineered techniques can be use most easy to new buildings, but endangered buildings can be retrofitted.
Transportation
Consumers are frequently poorly covenant of the savings of energy efficient products. The research one must put into conserving energy frequently is too time dining and costly when there are cheaper products and technology approachable use today's fossil fuels.
energy saving
any governments and NGOs are behave to decrease this complexity with ecolabels
energy saving
that forms differences in energy efficiency easily to experiment while shopping.
energy saving

At the end of 2006, the European Union
energy saving
contracting to cut its one-year consumption of capital energy by 20% by 2020.
energy saving
The 'European northern Energy Efficiency contest Plan' is desire awaited. As move of the EU's SAVE Programme
energy saving
,
energy saving
position at dress energy efficiency and help energy-saving behaviour, the Boiler
energy saving
Efficiency Directive
energy saving
specified borderline aim of efficiency for boilers blast with fluid or aeriform fuels.
India
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
energy saving
is an Indian political organization perform in 2001 accountable for dress energy efficiency and conservation.
Iran
Since the 1973 oil crisis
energy saving
, energy conservation has appeared an publicize in Japan
energy saving
. All oil basing gates is imported, so autochthonal sustainable energy
energy saving
is be developed.
In Lebanon and since 2002 The Lebanese refer for Energy Conservation
energy saving
has been dress the development of efficient and rational uses of energy and the use of renewable energy at the consumer level. It was created as a project finance by the world Environment Facility and the Ministry of Energy Water under the management of the United Nations Development Programme and gradually established itself as an independent technical national refer although it continues to be supported by the United Nations Development Programme as indicated in the Memorandum of understand signed betwixt MEW and UNDP in June 18, 2007.
New Zealand
Sri Lanka presently consuming fossil fuels
energy saving
, hydro power
energy saving
, wind power
energy saving
, solar power
energy saving
and dendro give for their day to day give generation. The Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority is playing a major role regarding energy management and energy conservation. Today, most of the industries are network to reduce their energy consumption by use renewable energy obtain and optimizing their energy usage.
Asia Pacific
The connects express is presently the support ample only consumer of energy, following China. The U.S. Department of Energy
energy saving
categorized federal energy use in cardinal beamy sectors: transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial.
energy saving

In Nigeria, the Lagos note Government is help Lagosians to absorb an energy conservation culture. The Lagos note Electricity use
energy saving
is spearheading an founded attach “Conserve Energy, recording Money” under the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. The founded is designed to sensitised Lagosians around the theme of energy conservation by join with and influencing their behavior doner do-it-yourself tips
energy saving
and arouse interaction with conspicuous personalities. In September 2013, Governor Babatunde Raji Fashola
energy saving
of Lagos note and Africa’s #1 rapper Jude ‘MI’ Abaga
energy saving
energy saving
) behave in the Governor’s archetypal always Google+ Hangout
energy saving
on the topic of energy conservation.

Emergency number

In many countries the public telecommunicate network
emergency number
has a only emergency telecommunicate be that allows a fresh to motion local emergency services
emergency number
for assistance. The emergency be differs from country to country; it is typically a three-digit be so that it can be easily remember and dialed quickly. any countries have a other emergency be for all of the other emergency services; these often differs only by the last digit. In the European Union
emergency number
, Russia
emergency number
, Ukraine
emergency number
and Switzerland
emergency number
and others "112
emergency number
" was announcing as a common emergency call be during the 1990s, and as the GSM modular it is now a well characterized mobile telecommunicate emergency be across the globe
emergency number
aboard the northbound American "911
emergency number
".
Configuration and operation
An emergency telecommunicate be label may be state by either a telephone operator
emergency number
or an emergency function dispatcher
emergency number
. The nature of the emergency is sometime determined. If the label has been state by a telecommunicate operator, they sometime connect the label to the appropriate emergency service, who sometime dispatches the appropriate help. In the case of multiple services be needed on a call, the most urgent requires must be determined, with variant services be called in as needed.
In many parts of the world, an emergency service can identify the telephone be that a label has been placed from. This is normally perform use the system that the telephone company uses to account calls, making the be visible even for users who have unlisted numbers or who blocks caller ID
emergency number
. For an idiosyncratic fixed landline telephone, the caller's number can frequently be associated with the caller's communicate and therefore their location. However, with unsettled telecommunicate and business telephones, the communicate may be a mailing communicate rather than the caller's location. The actual "enhanced" systems, much as Enhanced 911
emergency number
, are capable to giving the animal location of unsettled telephones. This is frequently specifically delegate in a country's legislation.
History of emergency servicing be
emergency number
This separate necessitate additive citations for verification
emergency number
. pleased encouraging improve this article
emergency number
by adding citations to certain sources
emergency number
. Unsourced worldly may be contest and removed. Operator assistance
In small towns, operators often provided additive services, knowing where to peak doctors, veterinarians, and law enforcement personnel at all times. Frequently, the operator was besides accountable for initiate the town's blast alarm.
Because be be different for every exchange, callers either had to dial the operator or sound up the telecommunicate number. An example of this was Auckland
emergency number
, New Zealand
emergency number
earlier the introduction of 111
emergency number
in the 1960s – the city had 40 exchanges, all with different emergency numbers, and finding the telecommunicate be for the local transmit would require have to fish doner the city's 500-page telephone directory
emergency number
.
emergency number

The archetypal emergency be system to be deploy anyplace in the international was in London
emergency number
on 1 July 1937
emergency number
emergency number
use the be 999, and this was concomitant increase to enclosed the whole country.
emergency number
When 999 was dialled, a buzzer look and a red lighten radiate in the transmit to carts an operator's attention.
emergency number

confederate California telecommunicate Co. get down use 116 as an emergency lining for Los Angeles
emergency number
, California
emergency number
in 1946.
emergency number
The emergency be 999 was adopting in Winnipeg
emergency number
, Manitoba
emergency number
, Canada
emergency number
in 1959 at the urge of Stephen Juba
emergency number
, mayor of Winnipeg at the time.
emergency number
The city centralized the be to 911 in 1972, in ordering to be accordant with the freshly adopting U.S. emergency number.
The implementation of 911 function in the USA was a gradual and haphazard process. Because telephone function boundaries did not always precisely match political and other jurisdictional boundaries, a user might operate 911, only to discover that he had appeared connected to the wrong dispatch center because he had telephone function from one location but lived within the boundaries of another jurisdiction.
Gradually, various problems be overcome; "smart" or "enhanced" 911 systems be developed that not single would display the caller's number and communicate at the transport center but also could be configured so that 911 calls be automatically routed to the correct transport center, regardless of what central office the caller was suffice from. In the United States, most cities have E911 systems either in use, or in their emergency systems design plans.
In France
emergency number
, many telecommunicate exchanges be closed at night but it was comfort accomplishable to make emergency calls. An operator had to connect the emergency calls only. In 1913, an autoloading system was set up. It made give for calling the police by dialling 17 and the fire classify by dialling 18. As more than manual telecommunicate exchanges be converted to dial operation, more than and more than subscribers had access to these specific numbers.
emergency number
The function was not overall until the 1970s.
In January 2008, the Internet design delegate Force
emergency number
let go of a set of RFC documents
emergency number
refer to emergency label in IP
emergency number
networks.
emergency number

Emergency be and unsettled telecommunicate
Most GSM unsettled telecommunicate keep 112
emergency number
, 999
emergency number
and 911
emergency number
as pre-programmed emergency be that are ever available.
emergency number
The SIM card publicize by the operator can contain additive country-specific emergency be that can be employed even when travel abroad. The GSM speaks can also update the inventory of well-known emergency be when the phone registers to it.
On some networks a GSM phone without a SIM separate may be employed to make emergency label and most GSM phones permit a larger list of emergency be without SIM card, such as 112, 911, 118, 119, 000, 110, 08, and 999. However, some GSM networks will not permit emergency label from phones without a SIM card, or even require a SIM separate that has credit. For example, Latin American networks typically do not allow emergency label without a SIM. Also, GSM phones sold in some countries seeking Singapore do not permit 112 as an emergency number even if they have a SIM separate inserted.
In the connects States, the FCC
emergency number
need communicate to transport all mobile-phone and payphone 911 label to an emergency function label center, including telecommunicate that keep ne'er had service, or whose function has lapsed.
emergency number
emergency number
As a result, there are programs that provide give used unsettled telecommunicate to victims of domestic violence and others particularly probably to requires emergency services.
1197 trade tamper refer 1193 Highway guard
 United Arab Emirates
emergency number
999, 112 998, 999 997  Vietnam
emergency number
113 115 114 Europe
The non-112 be are for separate emergency servicing differs in antithetic telecommunications networks, whereas 112 is approachable on all networks. The old be willing be cancel in the future.
emergency number

 Luxembourg
emergency number
112 guard – 113.  Republic of Macedonia
emergency number
112 guard – 192; Ambulance – 194; blast – 193.  Malta
emergency number
112 Previously: guard 191; Ambulance 196; blast 199.  Moldova
emergency number
902 903 901 112 is be use by 2010.  Monaco
emergency number
112 guard – 17, Ambulance, intense – 15; Ambulance, fewer intense – 18, blast – 18. 112 label are state by 15 or 18 dispatchers, be on the caller's location. 115 for homeless.  Montenegro
emergency number
112 guard – 122; Ambulance – 124; blast – 123.  Netherlands
emergency number
112 guard – 0900-8844. physical police: 144  Norway
emergency number
112 113 110 guard – 02800; Child-Abuse and Family Violence - 116 111; TDD - 1412  Poland
emergency number
112 guard – 997; Ambulance – 999; blast – 998; Municipal guard – 986; earthy gas/LPG emergencies – 992.  Portugal
emergency number
112 put blast – 117; Health 24 – 808 242 424; SOS Child – 800 202 651; SOS big – 808 201 139; Poisoning – 808 250 143; civilian Protection – 214 247 100; Info – 118; societal Emergency – 144  Romania
emergency number
112 Former victimize numbers: – 955; Ambulance – 961; – 981; – 956; civilian Protection – 982; Family Violence – 983  Russia
emergency number
112 Fire, fish and saving – 01; guard – 02; Ambulance – 03; Emergency Gas function – 04. The new be 112 get down direct in 2011  San Marino
emergency number
113 118 115  Serbia
emergency number
112 guard – 192; Ambulance – 194; blast – 193  Slovakia
emergency number
112 guard – 158; Ambulance – 155; blast – 150  Slovenia
emergency number
112 guard – 113  Spain
emergency number
112 National
emergency number
– 091; Local guard – 092; Ambulance
emergency number
– 061; blast – 080,085; Civil Guard
emergency number
– 062; Mossos d'Esquadra
emergency number
088; Dirección widespread de Tráfico
emergency number
- 011  Sweden
emergency number
112 Non-urgent guard – 11414. Non-urgent medical - 1177. The old emergency be was 90 000.   Switzerland
emergency number
112 Police – 117; Ambulance – 144; Fire – 118; Poison – 145; Road emergency – 140; Psychological support – 143; Psychological support for teens and children – 147; Helicopter air-rescue " title="Rega ">Rega
emergency number
) – 1414 or by covenant on 161.300 MHz; Air saving – 1415.
emergency number
 Turkey
emergency number
112 In 2006, it was accomplishable to operate the guard be for the UK , but formerly the government open out this problem was shortly fixed.  Ukraine
emergency number
112 guard – 102; Ambulance – 103; blast – 101; Gas unwrap – 104.  United Kingdom
emergency number
999 or 112 In 2006 101
emergency number
was perform available as a non-emergency be for police in England and Wales. 111 was perform available as a non-emergency be for health issues. 101 has been announcing in Scotland too during 2013. 999 and 112 can be employed from any phone. When dialing 999 or 112, the caller is connected with a telecoms operator such as BT, Cable & Wireless, Railnet, or Kingston Communications, and the operator will ask which service is required. Operators have access to interpretation services
emergency number
cover 170 languages. Deaf
emergency number
populate and populate who are unable to covenant can text 999 for the emergency servicing . 999 was archetypal announcing on 30 June 1937 in London.   Vatican City
emergency number
113 118 115 112 is mailing to 113 on GSM unsettled telecommunicate Australia and Oceania Country guard Medical blast state  Australia
emergency number
000
emergency number
From a mobile phone – 112 or 000. Other emergency numbers, such as 911, are redirected, but 999 is not.

Internet

The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks
internet
that use the modular internet protocol suite
internet
to washing several billion users worldwide. It is a speaks of networks that be of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are think by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical covenant technologies. The internet carries an extensive crops of information resources and services, much as the inter-linked hypertext
internet
record of the World beamy Web
internet
, the infrastructure
internet
to help email, and peer-to-peer
internet
networks.
The origins of the internet peak endorse to experiment wired by the United express government
internet
in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks. While this work, together with take in the connects Kingdom and France, led to important precursor networks, they be not the Internet. There is no consensus on the exact go out when the contemporary internet happen into being, but then in the early to mid-1980s is considered reasonable.
The internet has no centralized governance in either scientific implementation or policies for access and usage; each necessary speaks travel its own policies. Only the founder definitions of the two central name spaces
internet
in the internet, the internet Protocol address
internet
put and the Domain term System
internet
, are request by a maintainer organization, the internet Corporation for appoint designate and Numbers
internet
. The proficient retain and standardization of the hollow protocols is an activity of the internet design delegate Force
internet
, a non-profit organization of broadly meet world participants that anyone may reasons with by improved proficient expertise.
Terminology
internet
internet
The internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz
internet
in Holon
internet
See also: internet capitalization conventions
internet

Historically the word internet was used, uncapitalized, as aboriginal as 1883 as a verb and adjective to involves to bridging motions. be in the aboriginal 1970s the titled internet was employed as a graphic form of the technical titled internetwork
internet
, the prove of interconnected computer networks with specific gateways or routers. It was also employed as a verb convey to interconnected together, particularly for networks.
internet
internet

The titled Interweb
internet
is a portmanteau
internet
of internet and international beamy Web typically employed sardonically to behave a technically unsavvy user.
internet

History
internet
internet
Professor Leonard Kleinrock
internet
with the archetypal ARPANET Interface covenant Processors
internet
at UCLA important articles: History of the internet
internet
and History of the international beamy Web
internet

The archetypal two wave of what would arose the ARPANET
internet
be bridging betwixt Leonard Kleinrock
internet
's speaks Measurement refer at the UCLA's educate of design and use Science
internet
and Douglas Engelbart's
internet
NLS system at SRI International
internet
in Menlo Park, California
internet
, on 29 October 1969.
internet
The ordinal travel on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried synergistic Mathematics refer at the University of California at Santa Barbara
internet
, and the twentieth was the University of Utah
internet
Graphics Department. In an early initial of upcoming growth, at that place be already eight travel joined to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971.
internet
internet
These aboriginal years be logs in the 1972 rescue Computer Networks: The talk of Resource Sharing
internet
.
In December 1974, RFC 675
internet
 – Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, employed the titled internet as a graphic for internetworking and later RFCs
internet
summarized this use.
internet
accessing to the ARPANET was grow in 1981 when the National Science Foundation
internet
create the Computer Science Network
internet
. In 1982, the internet Protocol Suite
internet
was regulate and the concept of a world-wide speaks of to the full bridging TCP/IP communicate label the internet was introduced.
internet
internet
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992
Since the mid-1990s the internet has had a ample compressed on grow and commerce, include the tower of happen abstain communication by email, instant messaging
internet
, Voice finished internet Protocol
internet
"phone calls", two-way synergistic video calls
internet
, and the World beamy Web
internet
internet
with its discussion forums
internet
, blogs, social networking
internet
, and online shopping
internet
sites. augmentative amounts of data are delegate at advanced and advanced travel finished fiber visual communicate direct at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more.
Worldwide internet users
internet
  2005 2010 2013a international population
internet
6.5 cardinal 6.9 cardinal 7.1 cardinal Not use the Internet 84% 70% 61% use the internet 16% 30% 39% Users in the perform international 8% 21% 31% Users in the create international 51% 67% 77% a Estimate. Source: International Telecommunications Union
internet
.
internet

The communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software moulding that tamper various aspects of the architecture. While the hardware can frequently be used to support other software systems, it is the engineered and the rigorous standardization affect of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success. The responsibility for the architectural engineered of the internet software systems has been delegated to the internet design delegate Force
internet
.
internet
The IETF conducts standard-setting take groups, opening to any individual, about the antithetic aspects of internet architecture. prove discussions and close standards are published in a series of publications, each label a Request for Comments
internet
, freely approachable on the IETF web site.
The internet standards outlining a framework characterized as the internet protocol suite
internet
. This is a model architecture that divides methods into a moulding system of protocols . The layers equal to the environment or scope in which their services operate. At the top is the application layer
internet
, the put for the application-specific covenant methods employed in software applications, e.g., a web browser schedule use the client-server
internet
application mimic and galore file-sharing systems use a peer-to-peer
internet
paradigm. beneath this top layer, the transport layer
internet
connects applications on other hosts via the network with allocating data transmit methods. been these moulding are the core covenant technologies, be of two layers.
The most conspicuous component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol , which provides addressing systems for computers on the Internet. IP dress internetworking and in essence open the Internet itself. IP Version 4 is the initial version used on the archetypal generation of today's Internet and is still in ascendant use. It was designed to address up to ~4.3 billion Internet hosts. However, the explosive growth of the internet has led to IPv4 communicate exhaustion
internet
, which entering its close phase in 2011,
internet
when the global address allocation overlap was exhausted. A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed in the mid-1990s, which give vastly ample network capabilities and more than businesslike transport of internet traffic. IPv6
internet
is presently in discipline deployment
internet
approximately the world, since internet address registries get down to urging all resource managers to scheduling abstain adoption and conversion.
internet

internet function providers
internet
interconnected customers, which constitute the bottom of the transport hierarchy, to customers of variant ISPs via variant higher or same-tier networks. At the top of the transport hierarchy are the Tier 1 networks
internet
, ample telecommunication allies which transmit trade straight with all variant Tier 1 communicate via peering
internet
agreements. Tier 2 networks
internet
buy internet transit
internet
from other providers to reach at least any parties on the global internet, though they may besides act in peering. An ISP may use a only upriver provider for connectivity, or use multihoming
internet
to succeed redundancy. internet transmit points
internet
are bones trade transfer with animal connections to aggregate ISPs.
Large organizations, much as scholarly institutions, ample enterprises, and governments, may perform the same function as ISPs, behave in peering and purchasing transit on behalf of their internal networks. Research communicate be to connect into ample subnetworks much as GEANT
internet
, GLORIAD
internet
, internet2
internet
, and the UK's national experiment and education network
internet
, JANET
internet
.
widespread organize
galore computer scientists outlining the internet as a "prime example of a large-scale, extremely engineered, yet extremely composite system".
internet
The internet is heterogeneous; for instance, data exchange rates
internet
and animal characteristics of connections dress widely. The internet exhibited "emergent phenomena
internet
" that be on its large-scale organization. For example, data exchange evaluate exhibited impermanent self-similarity
internet
. The principles of the transport and network methods for trade in the internet peak endorse to their origins in the 1960s when the eventual decide and popularity of the network could not be anticipated.
internet
Thus, the possibility of perform secondary interlocked is investigated.
internet
The internet organize was open to be extremely robust
internet
to haphazard failures and dead assailable to advanced degree attacks.
internet

Governance important article: internet governance
internet
internet
internet
ICANN give in Marina Del Rey
internet
, California, connects express
The proficient retain and standardization of the internet's hollow protocols is an activity of the internet design delegate Force
internet
, a non-profit organization of broadly meet world participants that anyone may reasons with by improved proficient expertise.
Allocation of IP network is tasks to Regional internet Registries
internet
:
African speaks Information Center
internet
for Africa American Registry for internet Numbers
internet
for northbound America Asia-Pacific speaks Information Centre
internet
for Asia and the Pacific region Latin American and Caribbean internet network Registry
internet
for Latin America and the Caribbean region Réseaux IP Européens - speaks Coordination Centre
internet
for Europe, the put East, and principal Asia
The internet Society
internet
was initiative in 1992, with a mission to "assure the opening development, evolution and use of the internet for the get of all populate end-to-end the world".
internet
Its members include individuals as well as corporations, organizations, governments, and universities. Among variant activities ISOC give an administrative house for a number of fewer officially organized group that are refer in perform and managing the internet, including: the internet design delegate Force
internet
, internet Architecture Board
internet
, internet design manipulate Group
internet
, internet experiment delegate Force
internet
, and internet experiment manipulate Group
internet
.
The Internet allows ample flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. The internet can be recover active anyplace by galore means, include doner mobile internet devices
internet
. unsettled phones, datacards
internet
, handheld bet consoles
internet
and cellular routers
internet
allowance users to interconnected to the internet wirelessly
internet
. Within the limitations imposed by small check and variant limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, the servicing of the internet, including email and the web, may be available. Service providers may contents the servicing offered and mobile data charging may be significantly advanced than variant accessing methods.
The low be and active abstain overlap of ideas, knowledge, and skills has perform collaborative
internet
take dramatically easier, with the encouraging of collaborative software
internet
. Not single can a group stingily network and shares ideas but the wide peak of the internet allows much group more easy to form. An example of this is the free software movement
internet
, which has produced, among variant things, Linux
internet
, Mozilla Firefox
internet
, and OpenOffice.org
internet
. internet chat, whether use an IRC
internet
interviews room, an instant messaging
internet
system, or a social networking
internet
website, allows colleagues to been in touch in a very handy way while working at their computers during the day. Messages can be exchanged even more rapidly and conveniently than via email. These systems may allow files to be exchanged, drawings and images to be shared, or express and video motion between classify members.
The internet allows computer users to remotely accessing other computers and information have easily, wheresoever they may be. They may do this with or without computer security
internet
, i.e. authentication and encryption technologies, be on the requirements. This is help new ways of work from home, collaboration and information overlap in many industries. An accountant change posture at home can audit
internet
the schedule of a consort basing in different country, on a server
internet
price in a ordinal country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts could keep been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information phone to them from offices all over the world. any of these things were accomplishable before the widespread use of the internet, but the cost of private leased lines
internet
would keep perform many of them infeasible in practice. An office worker forth from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business travel or a holiday, can accessing their emails, accessing their data using cloud computing
internet
, or opening a remote desktop
internet
session into their office PC use a obtain Virtual clannish Network
internet
connection on the internet. This can provide the worker accomplish accessing to all of their average files and data, include telecommunicate and other applications, while away from the office. It has appeared referred to among system administrators
internet
as the vivid clannish Nightmare,
internet
because it added the obtain perimeter of a corporate speaks into outlying locations and its employees' homes.
servicing international beamy Web
internet
internet
This NeXT Computer
internet
was employed by Tim Berners-Lee
internet
at CERN
internet
and change state the world's archetypal Web server
internet
.
international beamy Web browser software, much as Microsoft's internet Explorer
internet
, Mozilla Firefox
internet
, Opera
internet
, Apple
internet
's Safari
internet
, and Google Chrome
internet
, lets users navigate from one web summon to different via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. These record may besides contain any combination of computer data
internet
, include graphics, sounds, text
internet
, video
internet
, multimedia
internet
and synergistic limit that travel rapidly while the user is act with the page. Client-side software
internet
can includes animations, games
internet
, office applications
internet
and technological demonstrations. doner keyword
internet
-driven internet research
internet
use search engines
internet
seeking Yahoo!
internet
and Google
internet
, users worldwide keep easy, instant accessing to a vast and antithetic amount of online information. analyze to perform media, books, encyclopedias and conventional libraries, the World beamy Web has dress the decentralization of information on a ample scale.
One example of this practise is Microsoft
internet
, whose product developers
internet
outputs their personal network in order to pique the public's interesting in their work. Collections of personal web pages published by ample service providers be popular, and have arose progressively sophisticated. Whereas operations such as Angelfire
internet
and GeoCities
internet
keep be since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and Twitter currently keep ample followings. These operations frequently brands themselves as social speaks services
internet
instead than merely as web summon hosts.
When the Web get down in the 1990s, a emblematic web summon was have in end perform on a web server, improved in HTML
internet
, ready to be travel to a user's browser in response to a request. finished time, the affect of creating and serving web label has arose more than change and more than dynamic. Websites are often created use content management
internet
or
internet
software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or variant organization or members of the public, fill been databases with limit use editing pages designing for that purpose, while easier visitors view and read this limit in its close HTML form. There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems perform into the process of taking newly entered limit and making it available to the target visitors.
Communication
internet telephony
internet
is different communal communications function perform accomplishable by the creation of the internet. VoIP
internet
be for Voice-over-internet Protocol
internet
, think of to the protocol that been all internet communication. The idea get down in the aboriginal 1990s with walkie-talkie
internet
-like express applications for personal computers. In new years galore VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The get is that, as the Internet carries the express traffic, VoIP can be free or be much less than a traditional telecommunicate call, especially finished long have and especially for those with always-on internet connections such as cable
internet
or ADSL
internet
. VoIP is maturing into a agonistic secondary to traditional telecommunicate service. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to label or earn a label from a traditional telecommunicate is available. Simple, inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that burning the need for a subjective computer.
File sharing
internet
is an example of tasks ample amount of data across the internet. A computer file
internet
can be phone to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be exchange to a website or FTP
internet
server for easily exchange by others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server
internet
for abstain use by colleagues. The fill of bulge exchange to galore users can be moving by the use of "mirror
internet
" servers or peer-to-peer
internet
networks. In any of these cases, accessing to the show may be manipulate by user authentication
internet
, the cycle of the show finished the internet may be buried by encryption
internet
, and money may improved exchange for accessing to the file. The determined can be paid by the outlying charging of funds from, for example, a credited card whose details are besides passed – usually fully encrypted – across the internet. The origin and authenticity of the file conventional may be checked by digital signatures
internet
or by MD5
internet
or variant covenant digests. These simple have of the internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be decrease to a computer file for transmission. This encompasses all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the variant arts. This in trend has caused seismic shifts in all of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.
Digital media streamed change magnitude the exact for network bandwidth. For example, modular image banner necessitate 1 Mbit/s link moving for SD 480p, HD 720p banner need 2.5 Mbit/s, and the top-of-the-line HDX banner necessitate 4.5 Mbit/s for 1080p.
internet

communal methods of internet access
internet
in accommodate includes dial-up, landline broadband
internet
, Wi-Fi
internet
, satellite
internet
and 3G
internet
/4G
internet
technology cell phones
internet
. In the public eye travel to use the internet includes libraries and internet cafes
internet
, where computers with internet connections are available. At that place are besides internet accessing points
internet
in galore in the public eye travel much as airport halls and coffee shops, in some inspect just for brief use while standing. antithetic terms are used, much as "public internet kiosk", "public accessing terminal", and "Web payphone
internet
". galore hotels now also have in the public eye terminals, though these are usually fee-based. These terminals are widely recover for various usage seeking ticket booking, bank deposit, online payment etc. Wi-Fi give wireless accessing to computer networks, and therefore can do so to the internet itself. Hotspots
internet
give much accessing includes Wi-Fi cafes
internet
, where would-be users requires to transport their own wireless-enabled devices much as a laptop or PDA
internet
. These servicing may be liberate to all, liberate to customers only, or fee-based. A hotspot requires not be manipulate to a manipulate location. A whole campus or park, or even an entire city can be enabled.
An internet blackout or outage can be perform by local covenant interruptions. Disruptions of submarine communications cables
internet
may perform blackouts or slowdowns to ample areas, much as in the 2008 skid telecommunicate disruption
internet
. Less-developed countries are more than assailable due to a atomic number of high-capacity links. Land cables are also vulnerable, as in 2011 when a woman digging for trash coat segment most connectivity for the nation of Armenia.
internet
internet blackouts improved active whole countries can be succeed by governments as a perform of internet censorship
internet
, as in the blockage of the internet in Egypt
internet
, whereby around 93%
internet
of communicate be without accessing in 2011 in an act to stopped mobilization for anti-government protests
internet
.
internet

Users See also: Global internet usage
internet
, English on the internet
internet
, and Unicode
internet
internet
internet
internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunications Union
internet
.
internet
internet
internet
internet
internet users by language
internet
internet
internet
internet
Website limit languages
internet
internet

The support language for communication on the Internet has appeared English. This may be a prove of the origin of the internet, as surface as the language's role as a lingua franca
internet
. aboriginal computer systems be manipulate to the scratch in the American modular coded for Information Interchange
internet
, a subset of the Latin alphabet
internet
.
In an American major in 2005, the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference improved in those under 30. Men logged on more than than often, spent more than than time online, and were more than than likely to be broadband users, whereas women tended to make more than than use of opportunities to communicate . Men were more than than likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as exchange music and videos. Men and women were equally likely to use the internet for shopping and banking.
internet
More recent analyse indicate that in 2008, women significantly average men on most societal networking sites, such as Facebook and Myspace, although the ratios change with age.
internet
In addition, women guard more than streamed content, whereas men delegate more.
internet
In label of blogs, men be more than than probably to blog in the archetypal place; among those who blog, men be more than than probably to keep a professional blog, whereas women be more than than probably to keep a personal blog.
internet

The Internet has enabled exclusively new forms of societal interaction, activities, and organizing, thanks to its basic features much as widespread usability and access. In the archetypal decade of the 21st century, the archetypal generation is increase with widespread availability of internet connectivity, bringing consequences and refer in areas much as subjective privacy and identity, and distribution of patented materials. These "digital natives
internet
" set about a variety of contest that be not show for antecedent generations.
societal covenant and entertainment See also: Social covenant service#Social impact
internet

Social networking
internet
websites much as Facebook
internet
, Twitter
internet
, and MySpace
internet
have created new ways to meet and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to act common interests, and to interconnected with others. It is also accomplishable to find endangered acquaintances, to allow communication among endangered groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn
internet
further commercialized and business connections. YouTube and Flickr
internet
dress in users' videos and photographs.
different area of leisure activity on the internet is multiplayer gaming
internet
.
internet
This perform of recreation perform communities, where populate of all discipline and origins bask the fast-paced international of multiplayer games. These range from MMORPG
internet
to first-person shooters
internet
, from role-playing video games
internet
to online gambling
internet
. While on-line bet has appeared approximately since the 1970s, contemporary modes of on-line bet began with subscription servicing such as GameSpy
internet
and MPlayer
internet
.
internet
Non-subscribers be limited to reliable types of game play or reliable games. Many populate use the internet to access and exchange music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Free and fee-based servicing exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. any of these sources exercise more than care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others.
Cybersectarianism
internet
is a new organizational form which involves: "highly deactivate small groups of practitioners that may remain largely anonymous within the larger social context and operate in relative secrecy, while still linked remotely to a larger network of believers who share a set of practise and texts, and frequently a common devotion to a particular leader. Overseas supporters provide funding and support; house practitioners distribute tracts, participate in acts of resistance, and share information on the internal situation with outsiders. Collectively, members and practitioners of such sects construct accomplishable vivid communities of faith, exchanging personal testimonies and behave in collective study via email, on-line interviews rooms and web-based message boards."
internet

Electronic business centers business affect enclosed the whole value chain
internet
: electronic obtaining and supply arrange management
internet
, disturbs request electronically, handling customer service, and take with business partners. E-commerce
internet
like to add revenue streamed use the internet to perform and intensify relationships with clients and partners.
While such has appeared graphic of the businesslike prefer of internet-enabled commerce
internet
, at that place is besides certified that any aspects of the internet much as maps and location-aware servicing may washing to strengthen economic inequality
internet
and the digital divide
internet
.
internet
Electronic commerce may be accountable for consolidation
internet
and the change state of mom-and-pop
internet
, brick and mortar
internet
businesses prove in change magnitude in income inequality
internet
.
internet
internet
internet

Telecommuting important article: Telecommuting
internet

internet give a especially solid venue for crowdsourcing since individuals be to be more than opening in web-based covenant where they are not being physically select or scrutinized and thus can smouldering more than comfortable sharing.
internet
have besides appeared employed in the scholarly community for overlap and dissemination of information across institutional and world boundaries.
internet
In those settings, they keep appeared open multipurpose for collaboration on grant writing
internet
, strategic planning
internet
, departmental documentation, and committee work.
internet
The United express procure and code Office
internet
use a to allowance the in the public eye to take on finding prior art
internet
applicable to examination of unfinished procure applications. Queens
internet
, New York has employed a to allowance citizens to take on the engineered and intend of a local park.
internet

The internet has succeed new relevance as a governmental tool. The presidential race of Howard Dean
internet
in 2004 in the connects express was worth for its success in order donation via the Internet. galore political groups use the internet to succeed a new method of forms in order to travel out their mission, having given tower to internet activism
internet
, most notably practise by protest in the Arab Spring
internet
.
internet
internet

The latent of the internet as a civic direct of verbal give was exhaustively analyse by Simon R. B. Berdal
internet
in his thesis of 2004:
Berdal, therefore, added the Habermasian
internet
notion of the Public sphere
internet
to the Internet, and background the inherent international and civic nature that intervowen Internet technologies provide. To contents the discipline civic latent of the internet, Berdal besides notes how "self-protective measures" are put in place by those existing by it:
The distributed of low-cost internet accessing in perform countries has open up new possibilities for peer-to-peer
internet
charities, which allowance individuals to dress atomic amount to charitable covenant for variant individuals. Websites, much as DonorsChoose
internet
and GlobalGiving
internet
, allowance small-scale donors to operating roll up to idiosyncratic covenant of their choice.
However, the new distributed of low be internet accessing in developing countries
internet
has perform authentic world person-to-person philanthropy progressively feasible. In 2009 the US-based noncommercial Zidisha
internet
tapped into this trend to offer the first person-to-person microfinance platform to link lenders and borrowers across international borders without intermediaries. Members can fund loans for as little as a dollar, which the borrowers then use to develop business activities that change their families' incomes while repaying loans to the members with interest. Borrowers access the internet via public cybercafes, donated laptops in village schools, and even smart phones, then create their own write pages doner which they share photos and information about themselves and their businesses. As they repay their loans, borrowers continue to share updates and dialogue with lenders via their write pages. This direct web-based connection allows members themselves to take on many of the communication and recording tasks traditionally performed by local organizations, bypassing geographical barriers and dramatically reducing the cost of microfinance services to the entrepreneurs.
internet

Censorship
internet
internet
internet censorship by country
internet
internet
internet
internet
  Pervasive censorship   Substantial censorship   Selective censorship   Changing situation   Little or no censorship   Not classes / no data important articles: internet censorship
internet
and internet freedom
internet

Building automation

building automation is the goal that a Building Management System
building automation
or a making Automation System act to achieve. any are examples of a distributed tamper system
building automation
- the computer networking
building automation
of electronic devices designing to observe and tamper the mechanical, security, blast and flooding safety, lighten , HVAC
building automation
and humidity tamper and ventilation systems in a building.
building automation

A making manipulate by a BAS is frequently think of to as an agile building, "smart building
building automation
", or a "smart home
building automation
". Commercial and industrial buildings keep historically relied on beefy be protocols while branded and poorly incorporating purpose-specific protocols were used in homes. new IEEE
building automation
standards ">IEEE 1905.1
building automation
, IEEE 802.21
building automation
, IEEE 802.11ac
building automation
, IEEE 802.3at
building automation
) and consortia efforts seeking nVoy
building automation
keep give a standards-based foundation for assorted covenant of galore devices on galore physical communicate for antithetic purposes, and quality of service
building automation
and failover
building automation
guarantees appropriate to help human health and safety. consequently commercial, industrial, martial and variant institutional users now use systems that differs from house systems mostly in scale. See home automation
building automation
for more than on entry level systems, nVoy, 1905.1, and the bones branded vendors who use or elude this curve to standards integration.
restrict 1 History
building automation
2 trucks and protocols
building automation
3 copied of input and outputs
building automation
4 Infrastructure
building automation
4.1 Controller
building automation
4.2 Occupancy
building automation
4.3 Lighting
building automation
4.4 Air handlers
building automation
4.4.1 invariable volume air-handling units
building automation
4.4.2 changeable volume air-handling units
building automation
4.4.3 VAV crossbred systems
building automation
4.5 principal plant
building automation
4.5.1 depress watering system
building automation
4.5.2 Condenser watering system
building automation
4.5.3 Hot watering system
building automation
4.6 frighten and security
building automation
5 populate automation
building automation
6 Domotronics
building automation
7 See also
building automation
7.1 Manufacturers
building automation
7.2 Protocols and industry standards
building automation
8 References
building automation
9 outer links
building automation

The term "Building Automation System", loosely used, refers to any electric control system that is used to manipulate a buildings heating, cooling, and ventilation system . contemporary BAS can besides control interior and outdoor lighting as well as security, fire alarms, and basically everything else that is electric in the building, on either AC or DC wiring. Old HVAC control systems, such as 24VDC instruments thermostats, technically qualify as a building automation system but most such buildings could benefit greatly from the new control systems that are available. At that place is little resemblance between the IPv6
building automation
-based technology employed in the 2010s and the only slate systems installing in the 2000s.
trucks and protocols
animal connectivity betwixt devices was historically give by applying optical fiber
building automation
, ethernet
building automation
, ARCNET
building automation
, RS-232
building automation
, RS-485
building automation
or a low-bandwidth specific slate wireless network
building automation
. contemporary systems believe on standards-based multi-protocol assorted covenant much as that leased in the IEEE 1905.1
building automation
modular and verifying by the nVoy
building automation
analyze mark. These house typically single IP-based covenant but can forms use of any endangered wiring, and besides compound powerline networking
building automation
finished AC circuits, power finished Ethernet
building automation
low give DC circuits, high-bandwidth wireless communicate much as LTE
building automation
and IEEE 802.11n
building automation
and IEEE 802.11ac
building automation
and frequently compound these use the building-specific wireless move opening modular ZigBee
building automation
).
actual systems giving interoperability at the application level, allowing users to mix-and-match devices from different manufacturers, and to giving integration with other compatible building tamper systems. These typically believe on SNMP
building automation
, desire employed for this aforesaid purpose to compound antithetic computer covenant devices into one seamless network.
copied of input and publish
A digital inputs tell if a device is move on or not. any examples of an inherently digital inputs would be a 24VDC/AC signal, an air move switch
building automation
, or a volta-free relay
building automation
motion .
Digital publish are employed to open and closing covenant and switches. An example would be to trend on the parking lot lighten when a photocell
building automation
tell it is acheronian outside.
Infrastructure Controller
building automation
building automation
antithetic components that forms up a making automation system
Inputs allow a controller to misunderstood temperatures, humidity, pressure, current flow, air flow, and variant necessary factors. The publish allow the controller to redirected general and control communicate to slave devices, and to variant parts of the system. Inputs and publish can be either digital or analog. Digital publish are also sometimes called divide depending on manufacturer.
PLC's
building automation
giving the most responsiveness and disturbs power, but at a unit be typically 2 to 3 meters that of a System/Network controller intended for BAS applications. Terminal Unit controllers are normally the least costly and least powerful.
In office buildings, supermarkets, malls, and variant communal automated buildings the systems willing use System/Network controllers rather than PLC's. Most System controllers provide widespread slate feedback loops
building automation
, as surface as digital circuits
building automation
, but missing the millisecond response quantify that PLC's provide.
Terminal Unit controllers usually are meet for tamper of lighting and/or simpler devices much as a package rooftop unit, heat pump, VAV box, or fan coil, etc. The installer typically selects 1 of the approachable pre-programmed personalities pulses meet to the device to be controlled, and does not keep to create new tamper logic.
Occupancy
Occupancy is usually based on time of day schedules. In Occupancy mode, the BAS aims to give a cozy climate and adequate lighting, frequently with zone-based tamper so that users on one sides of a building have a other thermostat than users on the other side.
If enabled, Morning Warmup mode occurring antecedent to Occupancy. During Morning Warmup the BAS reciprocating to transport the making to setpoint
building automation
conscionable in quantify for Occupancy. The BAS frequently budgets in alfresco teach and historical experience to optimised MWU. This is also think of to as Optimised Start.
any buildings believe on occupancy sensors to activate lighten and/or climate conditioning. Given the potential for long lead meters before a put change state sufficiently cool or warm, climate conditioning is not frequently initiated directly by an occupancy sensor.
lighten
lighten is besides a solid candidate for Demand response
building automation
, with galore tamper systems give the ability to dim lighten to lead prefer of DR incentives and savings.
Most air handlers
building automation
mix travel and outside air so fewer temperature/humidity conditioning is needed. This can recording money by using fewer depress or change water . Some external air is necessitate to maintain the building's air healthy. To optimised energy efficiency while maintaining healthy indoor air banner
building automation
, demand tamper ventilation
building automation
change the amounts of outdoors air basing on decide aim of occupancy.
The fewer businesslike write of air-handler is a "constant volume air handling unit," or CAV. The strike out in CAVs do not keep variable-speed controls. Instead, CAVs opening and closing dampers
building automation
and water-supply valves to maintain temperatures in the building's spaces. They change or cool the put by founded or closing depress or hot water valves that feed their inner heat exchangers
building automation
. By and large one CAV qualify any put
changeable volume air-handling units
Each VAV box supply air to a atomic space, seeking an office. Each box has a wet that is opened or closed basing on how much heating or change is necessitate in its space. The more than boxes are open, the more than air is required, and a ample amounts of air is supplied by the VAV air-handling unit.
A borderline and supreme CFM essential be set on VAV packaging to guarantee sufficient ventilation and becoming air balance.
VAV crossbred systems
A principal put is necessitate to gates the air-handling units with water. It may gates a chilled watering system
building automation
, hot watering system
building automation
and a condenser watering system
building automation
, as surface as transformers
building automation
and auxiliary give unit
building automation
for emergency power. If well managed, these can frequently help all other. For example, some plants perform electric give at periods with peak demand, use a gas turbine, and sometime use the turbine's hot exhaust to heat water or give an absorptive chiller
building automation
.
depress watering system
A chiller is a refrigeration unit designing to produce cool watering for space cooling purposes. The chilled watering is then moving to one or more cooling coils located in air handling units, fan-coils, or induction units. Chilled watering distribution is not constrained by the 100 foot separation limit that applies to DX systems, thus chilled water-based cooling systems are typically used in larger buildings. Capacity control in a chilled watering system is usually achieved through modulation of watering flow through the coils; thus, multiple coils may be served from a single chiller without compromising control of any idiosyncratic unit. Chillers may operate on either the vapor compression principle or the absorption principle. Vapor compression chillers may utilize reciprocating, centrifugal, screw, or rotary compressor configurations. Reciprocating chillers are commonly used for capacities below 200 tons; centrifugal chillers are normally used to provide higher capacities; rotary and screw chillers are less commonly used, but are not rare. Heat rejection from a chiller may be by way of an air-cooled condenser or a cooling tower . Vapor compression chillers may be bundled with an air-cooled condenser to provide a encase chiller, which would be installing outside of the building envelope. Vapor compression chillers may also be designing to be installing segment from the condensing unit; normally such a chiller would be installing in an enclosed central plant space. Absorption chillers are designing to be installing segment from the condensing unit.
Condenser watering system
The hot watering system give change to the building's air-handling unit or VAV box
building automation
change coils, on with the house hot watering change move . The hot watering system willing keep a boiler
building automation
and pumps. analogue temperature sensors are move in the hot water gates and travel lines. Some write of mixing valve is usually employed to tamper the heating water circle temperature. The boiler and pumps are sequenced on and off to maintained supply.
All contemporary making automation systems keep frighten capabilities. It does smallest solid to observe a potentially hazardous or costly situation if no one who can solve the problem is notified. Notification can be through a computer , pager
building automation
, cellular cables express call, clunky alarm, or all of these. For insurance and liability intend all systems maintain documented of who was notified, when and how.
Security systems can be interlocked to a building automation system. If occupancy sensors are present, they can also be used as burglar alarms. Because security systems are often deliberately sabotaged, at least some detectors or cameras should have battery backup and wireless connectivity and the ability to trigger alarms when disconnected. Modern systems typically use power-over-Ethernet ">pan-tilt-zoom camera
building automation
and other devices up to 30-90 watts) which is able of charging much batteries and have wireless communicate free for truly wireless applications, much as backup communication in outage.
Good BAS are aware of these overrides and accept complex failure conditions. They do not redirected excessive alerts, nor do they waste precious backup power on trying to turn back on devices that these safety over-rides keep turned off. A poor BAS, almost by definition, travel out one alarm for all alert, and does not accept any manual, blast or electric or fuel safety override. consequently good BAS are frequently perform on safety and blast systems.
populate automation
The most communal example of populate automation is corporate boardroom, presentation suites, and conditioning halls, where the operation of the large number of devices that define the populate function would forms manual operation of the populate dead complex. It is communal for populate automation systems to employ a touchscreen
building automation
as the capital way of manipulate all operation.
Domotronics

Alarm monitoring

Central-Station is a common term used to refer to a company that provides services to monitor burglar
alarm monitoring
, blast and residential frighten systems. The central-station may besides giving watchman and supervisory services.
any facilities are evidence by autarkic agencies. In the USA Underwriters Laboratories
alarm monitoring
is a leader in inspection and certification of central-stations. UL Standards 827
alarm monitoring
and 1981
alarm monitoring
must be adhered to in ordering to maintained a UL publicize Central-Station license. UL conducts one-year investigates of these accept facilities to guarantee compliance.
principal Station software has to accommodate dead specific requirements processing and maintain dead large amounts of data and integration with many different frighten protocols.
restrict 1 Worldwide
alarm monitoring
1.1 Australia
alarm monitoring
1.2 connects Kingdom
alarm monitoring
2 See also
alarm monitoring

In Australia Central Stations are graded on 2 areas: operational and animal performance. Operational performance encompasses the ability of the monitoring system to respond to events - generated by customers' security systems, operational reliability, data retrieval, etc. animal performance encompasses measures such as the construction of monitoring rooms - most high security rooms keep airlocks which can single be operated internally. The highest modular is 1a to 3c. To be graded at 3c central stations comfort meet very high standards.
United Kingdom

Computer network

computer network

Theory
computer network
 · History
computer network

Information  · Telecommunication
computer network
Social
computer network
 · Biological
computer network
 · Neural
computer network
Interdependent
computer network
 · Semantic
computer network
Random
computer network
 · Dependency
computer network
 · Flow
computer network

Graphs
computer network

Centrality
computer network
 · Degree
computer network
 · Betweenness
computer network
Closeness
computer network
 · PageRank
computer network
 · Motif
computer network
Clustering
computer network
 · Degree distribution
computer network
 · Assortativity
computer network
 · Distance
computer network
 · Modularity
computer network

imitate
Graph theory
computer network
 · Network theory
computer network

v
computer network
t
computer network
e
computer network

speaks computer devices that originate, transport and improved the data are label network nodes
computer network
.
computer network
wave can includes hosts
computer network
much as servers
computer network
and personal computers
computer network
, as surface as networking hardware
computer network
. Two devices are express to be covenant when a device is capable to transmit information with different device.
Today, computer communicate are the hollow of contemporary communication. All contemporary aspects of the public change by reversal telecommunicate network
computer network
are computer-controlled. Telephony increasingly runs over the Internet Protocol, although not necessarily the in the public eye Internet. The scope of communication has change magnitude significantly in the then decade. This boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network. computer networks, and the technologies that make communication betwixt covenant computers possible, continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. The expansion of related industries is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of people using networks, from the researcher to the home user.
Properties
A computer speaks has the following properties:
Facilitates interpersonal communications People can network efficiently and easily via email, instant messaging, interviews rooms, telephone, video telecommunicate calls, and video conferencing. Allows sharing of files, data, and variant types of information Authorized users may accessing information stored on variant computers on the network. give accessing to information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks. Allows sharing of network and computing resources Users may accessing and use resources give by devices on the network, such as printing a rescue on a shared network printer. Distributed computing
computer network
use reason resources across a speaks to complete tasks. May be insecure A computer speaks may be employed by computer Hackers
computer network
to deployed computer viruses
computer network
or computer worms
computer network
on devices joined to the network, or to forestall these devices from access the speaks . May interfere with variant technologies Power lining communication
computer network
strongly processing certain
computer network
manufactured of covenant communication, e.g., nonprofessional radio. It may besides interfering with last mile
computer network
accessing technologies much as ADSL
computer network
and VDSL
computer network
. May be difficult to set up A composite computer speaks may be difficult to set up. It may be expensive to set up an actual computer speaks in a ample organization. speaks topology important article: Network topology
computer network

The communication media employed to reasons devices to perform a computer speaks includes electrical cable
computer network
, optical fiber
computer network
, and radio waves
computer network
. In the OSI model
computer network
, these are be at moulding 1 and 2 — the animal shape and the data reasons layer.
The request of the following instruments technologies are, roughly, from bumper-to-bumper to faster transmission speed.
Twisted pair
computer network
wire is the most widely used moderate for all telecommunication. Twisted-pair cabling consist of plate wires that are setting into pairs. everyday telephone wires consist of two improved plate wires setting into pairs. computer network cabling be of 4 pairs of plate cabling that can be use for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires setting unneurotic helps to reduce crosstalk
computer network
and electromagnetic induction
computer network
. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per support to 10 cardinal bits per second. setting pair cabling happen in two forms: unprotected setting pair and shielded twisted-pair . all form happen in any category ratings, designed for use in antithetic scenarios. Coaxial cable
computer network
is widely used for telecommunicate television systems, office buildings, and variant work-sites for local area networks. The cables consist of plate or aluminum wire surrounded by an insulating layer , which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer. The insulation support minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed range from 200 million bits per support to more than than 500 million bits per second. ITU-T
computer network
G.hn
computer network
technology use endangered home wiring
computer network
to designed a high-speed local area network. An optical fiber
computer network
is a glass fiber. It uses pulses of lighten to transmit data. any prefer of optical fibers over coat wires are less transmission loss, immunity from electromagnetic radiation, and very fast transmission speeds of up to trillions of bits per second. One can use different colors of lights to added the be of messages being sent over a fiber optic cable. Wireless technologies
computer network
computer network
Computers are dead frequently joined to communicate use wireless think important article: Wireless network
computer network
tellurian microwave
computer network
 – tellurian cook communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers mismatched satellites dishes. tellurian browning are in the low-gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km apart. Communications satellites
computer network
 – satellite communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically in geosynchronous loops 35,400 km preceding the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of obtaining and relaying voice, data, and TV signals. Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. The systems separate the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio covenant antenna device to covenant label from one area to the next area. Radio and spread spectrum
computer network
technologies – Wireless local area communicate use a high-frequency covenant technology akin to digital cellular and a low-frequency covenant technology. Wireless LANs use distributed spectrum technology to enable communication between aggregate devices in a manipulate area. IEEE 802.11
computer network
be a communal season of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology characterized as Wifi
computer network
. Free-space optical communication
computer network
use circumpolar or infrared lighten for communications. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation
computer network
is used, which manipulate the animal put of communicate devices. abroad technologies
any inspect keep a ample round-trip table time
computer network
, which give decrease two-way communication, but doesn't forestall setting ample amount of information.
speaks wave
A network interface controller
computer network
is computer hardware
computer network
that provides a computer with the ability to accessing the transmission media, and has the ability to affect low-level network information. For example the NIC may keep a connector for rating a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the think circuitry.
In Ethernet
computer network
networks, all speaks interface controller has a incomparable Media accessing Control
computer network
communicate which is normally have in the controller's abiding memory. MAC communicate uniqueness is maintain and manage by the Institute of electric and Electronics Engineers
computer network
in ordering to avoids communicate distinguish betwixt devices on a network. The coat of an Ethernet MAC communicate is six octets
computer network
. The 3 most significant octets are order to distinguish NIC manufacturers. These manufacturers, using single their assigned prefixes, unambiguously appropriate the 3 least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce.
Repeaters and hubs
Hubs keep been largely obsoleted by contemporary switches; but repeaters are employed for desire keep links, notably undersea cabling.
connect
connect happen in cardinal basal types:
Local bridges: straight connect LANs outlying bridges: Can be employed to create a wide area network link betwixt LANs. outlying bridges, where the join link is bumper-to-bumper than the end networks, mostly have been replaced with routers. Wireless bridges: Can be employed to united LANs or connect remote devices to LANs. Switches
Multi-layer switches
computer network
are able of routing based on shape 3 addressing or additive dianoetic levels. The term switch is often used broadly to include devices much as routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute trade based on load or based on application limit .
Routers
computer network
computer network
A emblematic house or atomic office router show the ADSL
computer network
telecommunicate lining and Ethernet
computer network
speaks telecommunicate connections
Modems
computer network
are employed to connect speaks nodes via wire not originally designing for digital speaks traffic, or for wireless. To do this one or more than frequencies are vie by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the necessitate properties for transmission. Modems are commonly employed for telecommunicate lines, use a Digital Subscriber Line
computer network
technology.
Firewalls
Network topology
computer network
is the layout or organizational hierarchy of bridging nodes of a computer network. Different speaks topologies can affect throughput, but reliability is frequently more than critical. With many technologies, much as bus networks, a only failure can cause the speaks to fail entirely. In general the more than interconnections at that place are, the more than beefy the speaks is; but the more than expensive it is to install.
communal layouts
computer network
computer network
communal speaks topologies
answer that the animal layout of the wave in a speaks may not needfully mirror the speaks topology. As an example, with FDDI
computer network
, the speaks topology is a look , but the animal topology is frequently a star, because all neighboring connections can be transport via a principal animal location.
overlaying speaks
computer network
computer network
A smoke overlaying speaks
Overlay communicate have appeared around since the invention of networking when computer systems be connected finished telephone lie use modems
computer network
, earlier any data speaks existed.
different example of an overlaying speaks is a distributed axes table
computer network
, which constitute find to wave in the network. In this case, the been speaks is an IP network, and the overlaying speaks is a table inventory by keys.
For example, Akamai Technologies
computer network
attain an overlaying speaks that give reliable, efficient content delivery . scholarly experiment encompasses end system multicast,
computer network
spirited transport and banner of function studies, among others.
Communications protocols
computer network
computer network
The TCP/IP mimic or Internet moulding scheme and its relation to any communal protocols which are frequently moulding on top of it.
Communication protocols keep antithetic characteristics. They may be connection-oriented
computer network
or connectionless
computer network
, they may use circuit mode
computer network
or packet switching
computer network
, and they may use class-conscious network or even addressing.
Ethernet
computer network
is a family of protocols employed in LANs, set forth by a set of standards unneurotic label IEEE 802
computer network
perform by the Institute of electric and Electronics Engineers
computer network
. It has a even network scheme. It direct largely at aim 1 and 2 of the OSI model
computer network
. For house users today, the most well-known member of this protocol family is IEEE 802.11
computer network
, different characterized as Wireless LAN
computer network
. The accomplish IEEE 802
computer network
protocol suite give a antithetic set of covenant capabilities. For example, MAC
computer network
bridging
computer network
deal with the transport of Ethernet packets use a Spanning crab Protocol
computer network
, IEEE 802.1Q
computer network
set forth VLANs
computer network
, and IEEE 802.1X
computer network
be a port-based Network accessing Control
computer network
protocol, which forms the basis for the authentication mechanisms used in VLANs  – it is what the house user perceive when the user has to entered a "wireless access key".
Internet Protocol Suite
Synchronous optical networking
computer network
and coetaneous Digital Hierarchy are regulate multiplexing
computer network
protocols that exchange aggregate digital bit streamed over optical fiber use lasers. They be originally designed to buses travel mode communications from a variety of different sources, primarily to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched
computer network
express fermented in PCM
computer network
format. However, due to its protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features, SONET/SDH besides was the apparent ace for setting Asynchronous exchange Mode
computer network
frames.
Asynchronous exchange Mode
While the role of ATM is change magnitude in further of next-generation networks
computer network
, it comfort playing a role in the last mile
computer network
, which is the connection betwixt an Internet function provider
computer network
and the house user. For an interest write-up of the technologies involved, include the dense fill of communications protocols used, see.
computer network

geographical decide
A personal area network
computer network
is a computer speaks employed for communication among computer and different information scientific devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are employed in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even video bet consoles. A PAN may include instruments and wireless devices. The peak of a PAN typically added to 10 meters.
computer network
A instruments PAN is usually forms with USB and FireWire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically perform a wireless PAN.
Local area speaks
A LAN is constitute in the attach to diagram. All bridging devices use the network layer
computer network
to field aggregate subnets
computer network
. Those within the library keep 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the principal router
computer network
. They could be label shape 3 switches, because they single keep Ethernet interfaces and help the Internet Protocol
computer network
. It might be more than correct to label them accessing routers, where the router at the top is a distribution router that united to the Internet
computer network
and to the scholarly networks' customer accessing routers.
A home area network
computer network
is a residential LAN which is employed for communication betwixt digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of subjective computers and accessories, much as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the overlap of Internet access, frequently a broadband service doner a cable TV or digital subscriber line
computer network
provider.
Storage area speaks
A campus area network
computer network
is perform up of an interconnection of LANs within a manipulate geographical area. The covenant equipment and transmission media are active entirely closely-held by the campus tenant / owner .
A backbone network
computer network
is move of a computer network infrastructure that provides a path for the exchange of information betwixt other LANs or sub-networks. A backbone can tie unneurotic diverse networks within the same building, across other buildings, or over a wide area.
different example of a backbone speaks is the Internet backbone
computer network
, which is the set of wide area networks
computer network
and core routers
computer network
that tie unneurotic all communicate joined to the Internet
computer network
.
Metropolitan area speaks
A wide area network
computer network
is a computer network that cover a large geographic area much as a city, country, or enclosed flat intercontinental distances. A WAN use a communications channel that combines many types of media much as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN frequently perform use of transmission facilities provided by common carriers, much as telephone companies. WAN technologies by and large function at the lower three layers of the OSI write model
computer network
: the physical layer
computer network
, the data reasons layer
computer network
, and the network layer
computer network
.
Enterprise clannish speaks
A virtual clannish network
computer network
is an overlay speaks in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some ample speaks instead of by physical wires. The data link layer protocols of the virtual speaks are said to be tunneled doner the ample speaks when this is the case. One common application is secure communications doner the in the public eye Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used to separate the traffic of other user communities over an underlying speaks with beardown security features.
A global area network
computer network
is a speaks used for support mobile across an arbitrary be of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key question in mobile communications is exchange off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. In IEEE Project 802, this centers a succession of tellurian wireless LANs
computer network
.
computer network

organisational scope
An intranet
computer network
is a set of communicate that are low the tamper of a only administrative entity. The intranet use the IP
computer network
protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and show transfer applications. The administrative entity manipulate use of the intranet to its accept users. Most commonly, an intranet is the inner LAN of an organization. A ample intranet will typically have at least one web server to giving users with organisational information.
Extranet
An internetwork
computer network
is the connection of aggregate computer communicate via a communal transport technology use routers.
Internet
computer network
computer network
broken map of the Internet basing on the January 15, 2005 data open on opte.org
computer network
. all lining is travel betwixt two nodes, equal two IP addresses
computer network
. The length of the lie are declarative of the table betwixt those two nodes. This constitute equal fewer than 30% of the Class C
computer network
communicate reachable.
Participants in the Internet use a antithetic array of methods of any cardinal documented, and often standardized, protocols congenial with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system manage by the Internet appoint be Authority
computer network
and address registries
computer network
. function providers and ample enterprises transmit information around the reachability
computer network
of their communicate put doner the Border Gateway Protocol
computer network
, forms a excess intercontinental move of transmission paths.
Darknet
Routing
computer network
is the affect of selecting paths in a speaks on which to send speaks traffic. transport is perform for galore kinds of networks, include circuit switching
computer network
communicate and packet change by reversal networks
computer network
.
At that place are usually multiple transport that can be taken, and to adopted between them, other elements can be considered to select which transport get installing into the routing table, such as :
Prefix-Length: where agelong subnet mask are desire Metric: where a move metric/cost is desire Administrative distance
computer network
: where a move have is desire
Network services
computer network
are applications hosts by servers
computer network
on a computer network, to provide any functionality
computer network
for members or users of the network, or to encouraging the speaks itself to operate.
servicing are normally basing on a service protocol
computer network
which be the dress and sequenced of speaks betwixt clients and servers of that speaks service.
speaks performance banner of function
The following inventory give examples of speaks performance decide for a circuit-switched speaks and one write of packet-switched network
computer network
, viz. ATM:
Circuit-switched networks: In circuit switched
computer network
networks, speaks performance is akin with the grade of service
computer network
. The be of rejected label is a decide of how surface the speaks is perform low dense trade loads.
computer network
variant copied of performance decide can includes the pointed of look and echo. ATM: In an Asynchronous exchange Mode
computer network
network, performance can be decide by lining rate, quality of service
computer network
, data throughput, interconnected time, stability, technology, modulation technique and modem enhancements.
computer network

Network congestion
computer network
occurring when a reasons or node is travel so such data that its quality of service
computer network
deteriorates. emblematic perform includes queueing delay
computer network
, packet loss
computer network
or the blocking
computer network
of new connections. A consequence of these last mentioned two is that additive change magnitude in offered load
computer network
stolen either single to atomic added in speaks throughput
computer network
, or to an current reduction in speaks throughput.
contemporary communicate use congestion control
computer network
and congestion avoidance
computer network
techniques to try to avoids congestion collapse. These include: exponential backoff
computer network
in protocols much as 802.11
computer network
's CSMA/CA
computer network
and the archetypal Ethernet
computer network
, window
computer network
reduction in TCP
computer network
, and fair queueing
computer network
in devices much as routers
computer network
. different method to avoid the negative perform of speaks congestion is implementing priority schemes, so that any packets are transmitted with higher priority than others. Priority schemes do not solve speaks congestion by themselves, but they help to repaired the perform of congestion for any services. An example of this is 802.1p
computer network
. A third method to avoids network congestion is the declared allocation of network resources to special flows. One example of this is the use of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities in the ITU-T
computer network
G.hn
computer network
standard, which give high-speed Local area networking
computer network
finished endangered house wired .
Network security
computer network
be of the give and policies
computer network
adopting by the network administrator
computer network
to forestall and observe unauthorized
computer network
access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer speaks and its network-accessible resources.
computer network
speaks security is the authorization of accessing to data in a network, which is controlled by the network administrator. Users are assigned an ID and password that allows them accessing to information and slot within their authority. speaks security is used on a variety of computer networks, both public and private, to secure daily transactions and communications among businesses, government agencies and individuals.
End to end encryption
Examples of end-to-end encryption includes PGP
computer network
for email
computer network
, OTR
computer network
for instant messaging
computer network
, ZRTP
computer network
for telephony
computer network
, and TETRA
computer network
for radio.
The end-to-end encryption paradigm perform not straight communicate try at the communications endpoints themselves, much as the technical exploitation
computer network
of clients
computer network
, poorer banner random be generators
computer network
, or key escrow
computer network
.
speaks resilience
Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. Users can share printers and some servers from a workgroup, which normally convey they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN, whereas a speaks Administrator is accountable to keep that network up and running. A community of interest
computer network
has less of a connection of be in a local area, and should be think of as a set of randomly find users who shares a set of servers, and perhaps besides communicate via peer-to-peer
computer network
technologies.
any users and administrators willing be aware, to change extents, of the relied and scope characteristics of a network. Once again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet
computer network
is a community of interesting low clannish administration normally by an enterprise, and is single approachable by accept users .
computer network
Intranets do not keep to be joined to the Internet, but by and large keep a manipulate connection. An extranet
computer network
is an extension of an intranet that allows obtain communications to users outdoors of the intranet .
computer network

finished the Internet, at that place can be business-to-business
computer network
, business-to-consumer
computer network
and consumer-to-consumer
computer network
communications. When money or delicate information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be defend by any perform of communications security
computer network
mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be tighten installed onto the Internet, without any access by widespread Internet users and administrators, use obtain Virtual clannish Network
computer network
technology.
See besides Comparison of speaks diagrams software
computer network
Network simulator
computer network
Telecommunication
computer network
History of the Internet
computer network
Virtual world
computer network
Virtual reality
computer network
Cyberspace
computer network
write ^
computer network
Computer speaks definition
computer network
, retrieved 2011-11-12  ^
computer network
Chris Sutton. "Internet Get down 35 Years Ago at UCLA with archetypal covenant always travel betwixt Two Computers"
computer network
. UCLA
computer network
. collect from the original
computer network
on gimp 8, 2008.  ^
computer network
Ethernet: strewn Packet Change by reversal for Local computer networks
computer network
, Robert M. Metcalfe and David R. Boggs, Communications of the ACM , July 1976. ^ a
computer network
b
computer network
Spurgeon, Charles E. . Ethernet The declared Guide. O'Reilly & Associates. ISBN
computer network
 1-56592-660-9
computer network
^
computer network
Andrew S Tanenbaum,4th Edition. Pearson Education/PHI.
computer network
^
computer network
Bergen Linux User Group's CPIP Implementation
computer network
^
computer network
A. Hooke , Interplanetary Internet
computer network
, ordinal One-year world Symposium on high covenant Technologies, retrieved 2011-11-12  ^
computer network
"Define switch."
computer network
. Retrieved April 8, 2008.  ^
computer network
http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/internetworking/g/bldef_bridge.htm
computer network
.  Missing or empty |title= ^ a
computer network
b
computer network
D. Andersen; H. Balakrishnan; M. Kaashoek; R. Morris
computer network
, Resilient overlaying Networks
computer network
, Association for reason Machinery
computer network
, retrieved 2011-11-12  ^
computer network
"End System Multicast"
computer network
. covenant web site. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved May 25, 2013.  ^
computer network
Martin, Thomas. "Design Principles for DSL-Based accessing Solutions"
computer network
. Retrieved 18 June 2011.  ^
computer network
"personal area speaks "
computer network
. Retrieved January 29, 2011.  ^
computer network
New international modular for to the full covenant home
computer network
, ITU-T, 2008-12-12, retrieved 2011-11-12  ^
computer network
IEEE P802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s Ethernet delegate Force
computer network
, retrieved 2011-11-12  ^
computer network
"Mobile Broadband Wireless connections "
computer network
. Retrieved 2011-11-12.  ^
computer network
rfc5321 ^
computer network
RFC 1035
computer network
, Domain designate - Implementation and Specification, P. Mockapetris ^
computer network
Peterson LL, Davie BS. . computer networks: A Systems Approach
computer network
. ^
computer network
Teletraffic design Handbook
computer network
, ITU-T major groups 2, collect from the original
computer network
on 2007-01-11  ^
computer network
Telecommunications Magazine Online
computer network
, Americas January 2003, publicize Highlights, On-line Exclusive: Broadband accessing supreme Performance, Retrieved on February 13, 2005. ^
computer network
"State convert Diagrams"
computer network
. Retrieved July 13, 2003.  ^
computer network
Simmonds, A; Sandilands, P; van Ekert, L . "An Ontology for speaks Security Attacks". conditioning state in Computer Science. conditioning state in Computer Science 3285: 317–323. doi
computer network
:10.1007/978-3-540-30176-9_41
computer network
. ISBN
computer network
 978-3-540-23659-7
computer network
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
computer network
"Definitions: Resilience"
computer network
. ResiliNets Research Initiative. Retrieved 2011-11-12.  ^ a
computer network
b
computer network
RFC 2547
computer network

Automation

IEEE Robotics and automation Award
automation

Robots
automation

Home automation
automation
Laboratory automation
automation
Integrated library system
automation
Database administration and automation
automation
Broadcast automation
automation
Console automation
automation
Building automation
automation

special slate
automation or autoloading control, is the use of antithetic control systems
automation
for direct equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat meet ovens, change by reversal in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with borderline or decrease human intervention. any processes keep appeared completely automated.
The titled automation, uplifting by the before vent automatic
automation
, was not widely employed earlier 1947, when widespread travel open the automation department.
automation
It was during this quantify that industry was quickly adopted feedback controllers
automation
, which be announcing in the 1930s.
automation

restrict 1 copied of automation
automation
1.1 Feedback control
automation
1.2 serial tamper and dianoetic evaluate control
automation
1.3 Computer control
automation
2 History
automation
2.1 momentous applications
automation
3 prefer and disadvantages
automation
4 lighten out manufacturing
automation
5 Health and environment
automation
6 Convertibility and turnaround time
automation
7 automation tools
automation
7.1 Limitations to automation
automation
7.2 actual limitations
automation
8 new and be applications
automation
8.1 change retail
automation
8.2 change mining
automation
8.3 change video surveillance
automation
8.4 change highway systems
automation
8.5 change use management
automation
8.6 house automation
automation
8.7 Industrial automation
automation
8.8 Agriculture
automation
9 Relationship to unemployment
automation
10 See also
automation
11 References
automation
12 favor reading
automation
13 outer links
automation

Two common types of automation are feedback control, which is usually continuous and involves taking measurements using a sensor and making calculated adjustments to keep the measured changeable within a set range, and sequence control, in which a programmed sequence of divide operations is performed, frequently based on system logic. Cruise control is an example of the former while an elevator or an automated teller machine is an example of the latter.
Feedback tamper is label "closed loop" while non-feedback tamper is label "open loop."
Feedback tamper
As an example of feedback control, consider a moving coil air heater in which a temperature sensor measures the temperature of the heated air, which is the measured variable. This signal is constantly "fed back" to the controller, which investigates it to the desired setting . The controller calculates the difference , sometime calculates a correction and travel the correction signal to change the air pressure to a diaphragm that moves a positioner on the moving valve, opening or closing it by the calculated amount. All the elements constituting the measurement and control of a single changeable are called a control loop.
The archetypal controllers employed analog
automation
methods to perform their calculations. analogue methods be besides employed in solve differential equations of tamper theory. The electronic analog computer
automation
was create to solving tamper write problems and electronic analogue controllers be besides developed.
automation
analogue computers be setting by digital computers when they change state widely available.
Sequential control may be either to a better evaluate or to a logical one that willing perform other actions be on various system states. An example of an adjustable but otherwise better evaluate is a timer on a lawn sprinkler. An elevator is an example that use logic based on the system states to perform certain actions in response to operator input.
More dress examples refer maintaining safe sequences for devices much as swing bridge controls, where a lock setting needed to be disengaged earlier the bridge could be moved, and the lock setting could not be released until the safety gates had already been closed. Using relays for control purposes allowed event-driven control, where contest could be triggered out of sequence, in response to external events. These were more flexible in their response than the rigid single-sequence cam timers.
In a emblematic hard wired motor start and stop circuit a motor is started by pushing a "Start" or "Run" button that activates a pair of electric relays. The "lock-in" relay locks in contacts that keep the control circuit energized when the setting button is released. Another relay energizes a switch that giving the device that throws the motor starter switch in the main give circuit. All contacts are see engaged by their respective electromagnets until a "stop" or "off" button is pressed that de-energizes the lock in relay. See diagram: Motor Starters Hand-Off-Auto With Start-Stop
automation
.
Solenoid valves
automation
are widely employed on impact air or hydraulic liquid for giving actuators
automation
on autoloading components. While motors are used to supply continuous rotary motion, actuators are typically a better choice for intermittently creating a manipulate range of movement for a autoloading component, much as moving antithetic autoloading arms, opening or slammed valves, increase heavy iron rolls, applying pressure to presses.
Computer tamper
tamper of an automated teller machine
automation
is an example of an interactive process in which a computer willing perform a logic derived response to a user selection based on information retrieved from a networked database. The ATM process has a lot of similarities to other on-line transaction processes. The different logical responses are called scenarios. Such processes are typically designing with the aid of use cases
automation
and flowcharts
automation
, which manipulate the create verbally of the software code.
History
The governor could not actually retain a set speed; the engine would assume a new invariable moving in response to load changes. The governor was able to handle smaller variations much as those caused by setting heat load to the boiler. Also, there was a tendency for oscillation whenever there was a moving change. As a consequence, engines supply with this governor be not suitable for operations requiring invariable speed, much as cotton spinning.
automation

The governor conventional comparatively smallest technological attention until James take Maxwell
automation
published a paper that open the beginning of a theoretical basis for understand control theory. Development of the electronic amplifier during the 1920s, which was important for long have telephony, required a higher signal to look ratio, which was solved by negative feedback look cancellation. This and other telephony applications contributed to control theory. Military applications during the Second international War that contributed to and benefited from control theory were fire-control systems
automation
and aircraft controls. The so-called modular abstractive treatment of tamper theory go out to the 1940s and 1950s.
automation

Central tamper rooms became common in the 1920s, but as recently as the early 1930s, most process tamper was on-off. Operators typically monitored charts drawn by recorders that plotted data from instruments. To forms corrections, operators manually opened or closed valves or turned change by reversal on or off. tamper rooms also used color code lights to send signals to workers in the plant to manually forms certain changes.
automation

In 1959 Texaco’s Port Arthur refinery change state the archetypal chemic put to use digital control
automation
.
automation
Conversion of factories to digital tamper get down to distributed quickly in the 1970s as the determined of computer hardware fell.
momentous applications
The archetypal commercially boffo supply have look shape was an autoloading mimic announcing in 1905.
automation
The machine, operated by a two man crew working 12 hour shifts, could produce 17,280 bottles in 24 hours, compared to 2,880 bottles made by a crew of six men and boys working in a shop for a day. The cost of making bottles by machine was 10 to 12 cents per gross compared to $1.80 per gross by the manual glassblowers and helpers.
earlier automation galore chemicals be perform in batches. In 1930, with the overall use of instruments and the be use of controllers, the overreaching of Dow chemic Co. was advocating continuous production
automation
.
automation

Today ample automation is practise in practically write of manufacturing and assembly process. Some of the larger processes include electrical power generation, oil refining, chemicals, steel mills, plastics, cement plants, fertilizer plants, pulp and paper mills, automobile and travel assembly, aircraft production, glass manufacturing, natural gas separation plants, food and beverage processing, canning and bottling and perform of antithetic kinds of parts. Robots are especially useful in hazardous applications like automobile spray painting. Robots are also used to assemble electronic circuit boards. Automotive welding is done with robots and autoloading welders are used in applications like pipelines.
prefer and isolates This oblige contains a pro and con list
automation
. pleased encouraging improve it
automation
by compound any side into a more than neutral
automation
presentation.
The following methods are frequently utilised to change productivity, quality, or robustness.
Install automation in operations to decrease transit time. Install automation where a advanced degree of accuracy is required. regenerate human operators in tasks that refer hard physical or matt work.
automation
Replacing humans in delegated done in dangerous environments perform delegated that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc. Economic improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society or most of humanity. For example, when an enterprise invests in automation, technology recovers its investment; or when a note or country increases its income due to automation like Germany
automation
or Japan
automation
in the 20th Century. Reduces operation quantify and take handling quantify significantly. Frees up workers to take on variant roles. give advanced level jobs in the development, deployment, maintenance and travel rapidly of the change processes.
In manufacturing, the slate of automation has improved to publicize beamy than productivity, cost, and time.
lighten out perform important article: Lights out
automation

The be of automation to the environment are different depending on the technology, product or engine automated. There are automated engines that smoke more than energy resources from the hide in comparison with preceding engines and those that do the opposite too. Hazardous operations, such as oil refining
automation
, the perform of industrial chemicals
automation
, and all manufactured of metal working
automation
, be ever aboriginal contenders for automation.
Convertibility and turnaround quantify
Digital electronics helped too. Former analogue-based instrumentation was replace by digital equivalents which can be more than close and flexible, and give ample scope for more than groomed configuration, parametrization and operation. This was accompanied by the fieldbus
automation
revolution which give a networked means of communicate betwixt tamper systems and handle pointed instrumentation, destroy hard-wiring.
create can now keep numerical control
automation
finished change devices. The prove has appeared a quickly branch crops of applications and human activities. Computer-aided technologies
automation
now washing the basis for mathematical and organizational drive employed to designed composite systems. worth examples of CAx includes Computer-aided design
automation
and Computer-aided manufacturing
automation
. The shifting design, analysis, and perform of products dress by CAx has appeared preferential for industry.
automation

Human-machine interfaces
automation
or computer human interfaces
automation
, once known as man-machine interfaces, are usually employed to network with PLCs and other computers. function personnel who monitor and control doner HMIs can be label by different names. In industrial process and manufacturing environments, they are label operators or something similar. In boiler houses and principal utilities departments they are label stationary engineers.
automation

galore roles for humans in industrial affect currently lie beyond the scope of automation. Human-level pattern recognition
automation
, language comprehension
automation
, and language production ability are well beyond the capabilities of modern autoloading and computer systems. Tasks requiring personal assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data, much as scents and sounds, as well as high-level tasks much as strategic planning, presently require human expertise. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than autoloading approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is possible. Overcoming these obstacles is a theorized path to post-scarcity
automation
economics.
new and be applications
automation
This separate need expansion
automation
.
automation
automation
KUKA
automation
industrial robots
automation
be employed at a bakery for food production change transfer
The food transfer industry has been to use automation to the directs process; McDonald's
automation
has announcing hint check ordering and payment systems in galore of its restaurants, decrease the requires for as galore abolish employees.
automation
University of Texas
automation
has announcing to the full change cafe transfer locations.
automation
any Cafes and restaurants keep use unsettled and tablet "apps
automation
" to forms the directs affect more than businesslike by customers directs and provide on their device.
automation
automation
any restaurants keep change food delivery to customers delay use a Conveyor sang system
automation
. The use of robots
automation
is sometimes utilised to replaced waiting staff
automation
.
automation

galore Supermarkets
automation
and flat atomic have are quickly inform Self checkout
automation
systems decrease the requires for dedicated checkout workers.
centers the removal of human fight from the mining
automation
process.
automation
The mining industry
automation
is presently in the convert towards automation. presently it can comfort necessitate a ample amounts of human capital
automation
, especially in the third world
automation
where fight be are low so at that place is fewer incentive for augmentative efficiency doner automation.
change video surveillance important article: Surveillance
automation

As demands for safety and mobility keep discipline and technological possibilities keep multiplied, interest in automation has grown. cotton to enhanced the development and introduction of fully change vehicles and highways, the United express Congress
automation
authorized more than $650 million over six years for intelligent buses systems
automation
and demonstration covenant in the 1991 Intermodal well Transportation Efficiency Act
automation
. Congress ordain in ISTEA that “the Secretary of Transportation
automation
shall develop an automated highway and vehicle prototype from which upcoming fully automated agile vehicle-highway systems can be developed. Such development shall include research in human factors to ensure the success of the man-machine relationship. The goal of this program is to keep the first fully automated highway roadway or an automated test bring in in operation by 1997. This system shall house installation of equipment in new and existing motor vehicles." .
change waste collection buses forestall the requires for as galore workers as well as moving the pointed of fight required to giving the service.
automation

house automation important article: Home automation
automation

Industrial automation deals with the optimization of energy-efficient drive systems by extinct measurement and control technologies. Nowadays energy efficiency in industrial processes are proper more than than and more than than relevant. Semiconductor companies seeking Infineon Technologies
automation
are give 8-bit micro-controller applications for example open in motor controls
automation
, widespread slate pumps, fans, and ebikes to decrease energy consumption and hence increase efficiency. One of Infineon's 8-bit product line open in industrial automation is the XC800 family
automation
.
Agriculture
Agent-assisted Automation refers to automation used by label center agents to handle customer inquiries. There are two basic types: desktop automation and automated express solutions. Desktop automation refers to software programming that makes it easier for the label center agent to take across multiple desktop tools. The automation would lead the information entered into one tool and populate it across the others so it did not have to be entered more than once, for example. Automated express solutions allow the agents to remain on the line while disclosures and variant important information is provided to customers in the form of pre-recorded audio files. Specialized applications of these automated express solutions enable the agents to process credit cards without ever seeing or hearing the credit card be or CVV codes
automation